Ailhaud, G & Hauner, H (2004) Development of white adipose tissue. In Handbook of Obesity. Etiology and Pathophysiology 2nd ed., pp. 481 – 514 [ Bray, GA and Bouchard, C, editors ] New York: Marcel Dekker.
Alessi, MC, Pirelli, F, Morange, P, Henry, M, Nalbone, G & Juhan-Vague, I (1997) Production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by adipose tissue: possible link between visceral fat accumulation and vascular disease. Diabetes 46, 860–867.
Berg, AH, Combs, TP & Scherer, PE (2002) ACRP30/adiponectin: an adipokine regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13, 84–89.
Berg, AH, Combs, TP, Du, X, Brownlee, M & Scherer, PE (2001) The adipocyte-secreted protein ACRP30 enhances hepatic insulin action. Nature Medicine 7, 947–953.
Birgel, M, Gottschling-Zeller, H, Röhrig, K & Hauner, H (2000) Role of cytokines in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and secretion in newly differentiated subcutaneous human adipocytes. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 20, 1682–1687.
Boden, G (1997) Role of fatty acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and NIDDM. Diabetes 46, 3–10.
Bornstein, SR, Abu-Asab, M, Glasow, A, Päth, G, Hauner, H, Tsokos, M, Chrousos, GP & Scherbaum, WA (2000) Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural localization of leptin and leptin receptor in human white adipose tissue and differentiating human adipose cells in primary culture. Diabetes 49, 532–538.
Cousin, B, Munoz, O, Andre, M, Fontanilles, AM, Dani, C, Cousin, JL, Laharrague, P, Casteilla, L & Penicaud, L (1999) A role for preadipocytes as macrophage-like cells. FASEB Journal 13, 305–312.
Darimont, C, Vassaux, G, Ailhaud, G & Negrel, R (1994) Differentiation of preadipose cells: paracrine role of prostacyclin upon stimulation of adipose cells by angiotensin II. Endocrinology 135, 2030–2035.
Dietze, D, Koenen, M, Röhrig, K, Horikoshi, H, Hauner, H & Eckel, J (2002) Impairment of insulin signalling in human skeletal muscle by co-culture with human adipocytes. Diabetes 51, 2369–2376.
Ehrhart-Bornstein, M, Lamounier-Zepter, V, Schraven, A, Langenbach, J, Willenberg, HS, Barthel, A, Hauner, H, McCann, SM, Scherbaum, WA & Bornstein, SR (2003) Human adipocytes secrete mineralocorticoid-releasing factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100, 14211–14216.
Eriksson, P, Reynisdottir, S, Lönnqvist, F, Stemme, V, Hamsten, A & Arner, P (1998) Adipose secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in non-obese and obese individuals. Diabetologia 41, 65–71.
Fain, JN, Madan, AK, Hiler, ML, Cheema, P & Bahouth, SW (2004) Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of obese humans. Endocrinology 145, 2273–2282.
Fried, SK, Bunkin, DA & Greenberg, AS (1998) Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese subjects release interleukin-6: depot differences and regulation by glucocorticoids. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 847–850.
Friedman, JM & Halass, JL (1998) Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 395, 763–770.
Gottschling-Zeller, H, Birgel, M, Röhrig, K & Hauner, H (2000) Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta 1 on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 secretion from subcutaneous and omental human fat cells in suspension culture. Metabolism 49, 666–671.
Hauner, H (2002) Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome – a challenge of the new millenium. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 Suppl. 1, S25–S29.
Hotamisligil, GS, Arner, P, Caro, JF, Atkinson, RL & Spiegelman, BM (1995) Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation 95, 2409–2415.
Hotamisligil, GS, Shargill, NS & Spiegelman, BM (1993) Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science 257, 87–91.
Hube, F, Birgel, N, Lee, Y-M & Hauner, H (1999) Expression pattern of tumour necrosis factor receptors in subcutaneous and omental human adipose tissue: role of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 29, 672–678.
Hube, F & Hauner, H (1999) The role of TNF-α in human adipose tissue: prevention of weight gain at the expense of insulin resistance. Hormone and Metabolic Research 31, 626–631.
Janke, J, Engeli, S, Gorzelniak, K, Luft, FC & Sharma, AM (2002) Mature adipocytes inhibit in vitro differentiation of human preadipocytes via angiotensin type 1 receptors. Diabetes 51, 1699–1707.
Karlsson, C, Lindell, K, Ottosson, M, Sjöström, L, Carlsson, B & Carlsson, LM (1998) Human adipose tissue expresses angiotensinogen and the enzymes required for its conversion to angiotensin II. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 3925–3929.
Kern, PA, Saghizadeh, M, Ong, JM, Bosch, RJ, Deem, R & Simsolo, RB (1995) The expression of tumor necrosis factor in human adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation 95, 2111–2119.
Lakka, HM, Laaksonen, DE, Lakka, TA, Niskanen, LK, Kumpusalo, E, Tuomilehto, J & Salonen, JT (2002) The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. Journal of the American Medical Association 288, 2709–2716.
Ma, L-J, Mao, S-L, Taylor, KL, Kanjanabuch, T, Guan, YF & Zhang, YH et al. . (2004) Prevention of obesity and insulin resistance in mice lacking plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Diabetes 53, 336–346.
Massiera, F, Bloch-Faure, M, Ceiler, D, Murakami, K, Fukamizu, A & Gask, JM et al. . (2001) Adipose angiotensinogen is involved in adipose tissue growth and blood pressure regulation. FASEB Journal 15, 2727–2729.
Mohamed-Ali, V, Goodbrick, S, Rawesh, A, Katz, DR, Miles, JM, Yudkin, JS, Klein, S & Coppack, SW (1997) Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-α in vivo. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 4196–4200.
Päth, G, Bornstein, SR, Gurniak, M, Chrousos, GP, Scherbaum, WA & Hauner, H (2001) Human breast adipocytes express interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor system: increased IL-6 production by β-adrenergic activation and effects of IL-6 on adipocyte function. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86, 2281–2288.
Ridker, PM, Rifai, N, Stampfer, MJ & Hennekens, CH (2000) Plasma concentration of interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation 101, 1767–1772.
Sattar, N, Gaw, A, Scherbakowa, O, Ford, I, O'Reilly, DS, Haffner, SM, Isles, C, MacFarlane, PW, Packard, CJ, Cobbe, SM & Shepherd, J (2003) Metabolic syndrome with and without C-reactive protein as a predictor of coronary heart disease and diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Circulation 108, 414–419.
Sawdey, MS & Loskutoff, DJ (1991) Regulation of murine type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene expression in vivo: tissue specificity and induction by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88, 1346–1353.
Skurk, T & Hauner, H (2004) Obesity and impaired fibrinolysis: role of adipose production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28, 1357–1364.
Skurk, T, Herder, C, Kraft, I, Muller-Scholze, S, Hauner, H & & Kolb, H (2005) Production and release of macrophage migration inhibitory factor from human adipocytes. Endocrinology 146, 1006–1011; Epublication 2 December 2004.
Skurk, T, Lee, Y-M & Hauner, H (2001) Angiotensin II and its metabolites stimulate PAI-1 protein release from human adipocytes in primary culture. Hypertension 37, 1336–1340.
Skurk, T, van Harmelen, V & Hauner, H (2004) Angiotensin II stimulates the release of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 from cultured human adipocytes by activation of NF-kappaB. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 24, 1199–1203.
Spranger, J, Kroke, A, Möhlig, M, Bergmann, MM, Ristow, M, Boeing, H & Pfeiffer, AF (2003a) Adiponectin and protection against type 2 diabetes. Lancet 361, 226–228.
Spranger, J, Kroke, A, Möhlig, M, Hoffmann, K, Bergmann, MM, Ristow, M, Boeing, H & Pfeiffer, AF (2003b) Inflammatory cytokines and the risk to develop type 2 diabetes: results of the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Diabetes 52, 812–817.
Umemura, S, Nyui, N, Tamura, K, Hibi, K, Yamaguchi, S, Nakamaru, M, Ishigami, T, Yabana, M, Kihara, M, Inoue, S & Ishii, M (1997) Plasma angiotensinogen concentrations in obesity. American Journal of Hypertension 10, 629–633.
van Harmelen, V, Ariapart, P, Hoffstedt, J, Lundkvist, I, Bringman, S & Arner, P (2000b) Increased adipose angiotensinogen gene expression in human adipose tissue. Obesity Research 8, 337–341.
van Harmelen, V, Elizalde, M, Ariapart, P, Bergstedt-Lindqvist, S, Reynisdottir, S, Hoffstedt, J, Lundqvist, I, Bringman, S & Arner, P (2000b) The association of human adipose tissue angiotensinogen gene expression with abdominal fat distribution in obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 24, 673–678.
van Harmelen, V, Skurk, T, Röhrig, K & Hauner, H (2003) HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor cerivastatin inhibits interleukin-6 expression and secretion in human adipocytes. Hormone and Metabolic Research 35, 466–470.
Weisberg, SP, McCann, D, Desai, M, Rosenbaum, M, Leibel, RL & Ferrante, AW (2003) Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation 112, 1796–1808.
Wellen, KE & Hotamisligil, GS (2003) Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation 112, 1785–1788.
Weyer, C, Funahashi, T, Tanaka, S, Hotta, K, Matsuzawa, Y, Pratley, RE & Tataranni, PA (2001) Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86, 1930–1935.
Woods, A, Brull, DJ, Humphries, SE & Montgomery, HE (2000) Genetics of inflammation and risk of coronary artery disease: the central role of interleukin-6. European Heart Journal 21, 1574–1583.
World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report on a WHO consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. Geneva: WHO.
Xu, H, Barnes, GT, Yang, O, Tan, G, Yang, D, Chou, CJ, Sole, J, Nichols, A, Ross, JS, Tartaglia, LA & Chen, H (2003) Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation 112, 1821–1830.
Yang, WS, Lee, WJ, Funahashi, T, Tanaka, S, Matsuzawa, Y, Chao, CL, Chen, CL, Tai, TY & Chuang, LM (2001) Weight reduction increases plasma levels of an adipose tissue-derived anti-inflammatory protein, adiponectin. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86, 3815–3819.
Zhang, Y, Proenca, R, Maffei, M, Barone, M, Leopold, L & Friedman, JM (1994) Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372, 425–432.