Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Session 7: Early nutrition and later health Early developmental pathways of obesity and diabetes risk: Symposium on ‘Nutrition in early life: new horizons in a new century’

  • D. B. Dunger (a1), B. Salgin (a1) and K. K. Ong (a1) (a2)
Abstract

Size at birth and patterns of postnatal weight gain have been associated with adult risk for the development of type 2 diabetes in many populations, but the putative pathophysiological link remains unknown. Studies of contemporary populations indicate that rapid infancy weight gain, which may follow fetal growth restriction, is an important risk factor for the development of childhood obesity and insulin resistance. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood shows that rapid catch-up weight gain can lead to the development of insulin resistance, as early as 1 year of age, in association with increasing accumulation of central abdominal fat mass. In contrast, the disposition index, which reflects the β-cells ability to maintain insulin secretion in the face of increasing insulin resistance, is much more closely related to ponderal index at birth than postnatal catch-up weight gain. Infants with the lowest ponderal index at birth show a reduced disposition index at aged 8 years associated with increases in fasting NEFA levels. The disposition index is also closely related to childhood height gain and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels; reduced insulin secretory capacity being associated with reduced statural growth, and relatively short stature with reduced IGF-I levels at age 8 years. IGF-I may have an important role in the maintenance of β-cell mass, as demonstrated by recent studies of pancreatic β-cell IGF-I receptor knock-out and adult observational studies indicating that low IGF-I levels are predictive of subsequent risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, as insulin secretion is an important determinant of IGF-I levels, cause and effect may be difficult to establish. In conclusion, although rapid infancy weight gain and increasing rates of childhood obesity will increase the risk for the development of insulin resistance, prenatal and postnatal determinants of β-cell mass may ultimately be the most important determinants of an individual's ability to maintain insulin secretion in the face of increasing insulin resistance, and thus risk for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Session 7: Early nutrition and later health Early developmental pathways of obesity and diabetes risk
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Session 7: Early nutrition and later health Early developmental pathways of obesity and diabetes risk
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Session 7: Early nutrition and later health Early developmental pathways of obesity and diabetes risk
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr D. B. Dunger, fax +44 1223 336996, email dbd25@cam.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S Bonner-Weir , D Deery , JL Leahy & GC Weir (1989) Compensatory growth of pancreatic beta-cells in adult rats after short-term glucose infusion. Diabetes 38, 4953.

JC Bruning , J Winnay , S Bonner-Weir , SI Taylor , D Accili & CR Kahn (1997) Development of a novel polygenic model of NIDDM in mice heterozygous for IR and IRS-1 null alleles. Cell 88, 561572.

P Bundred , D Kitchiner & I Buchan (2001) Prevalence of overweight and obese children between 1989 and 1998: population based series of cross sectional studies. British Medical Journal 322, 326328.

D Dabelea , RL Hanson , RS Lindsay , DJ Pettitt , G Imperatore , MM Gabir , J Roumain , PH Bennett & WC Knowler (2000) Intrauterine exposure to diabetes conveys risks for type 2 diabetes and obesity: a study of discordant sibships. Diabetes 49, 22082211.

I dos Santos Silva , BL De Stavola , V Mann , D Kuh , R Hardy & ME Wadsworth (2002) Prenatal factors, childhood growth trajectories and age at menarche. International Journal of Epidemiology 31, 405412.

DB Dunger , KK Ong & MS Sandhu (2003) Serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels and potential risk of type 2 diabetes. Hormone Research 60, Suppl. 3, 131135.

N Engel , AG West , G Felsenfeld & MS Bartolomei (2004) Antagonism between DNA hypermethylation and enhancer-blocking activity at the H19 DMD is uncovered by CpG mutations. Nature Genetics 36, 883888.

JG Eriksson , TJ Forsen , C Osmond & DJ Barker (2003) Pathways of infant and childhood growth that lead to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 30063010.

PW Franks , HC Looker , S Kobes , L Touger , PA Tataranni , RL Hanson & WC Knowler (2006) Gestational glucose tolerance and risk of type 2 diabetes in young Pima Indian offspring. Diabetes 55, 460465.

SP Garnett , CT Cowell , LA Baur , RA Fay , J Lee , J Coakley , JK Peat & TJ Boulton (2001) Abdominal fat and birth size in healthy prepubertal children. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25, 16671673.

KM Godfrey , DJ Barker , S Robinson & C Osmond (1997) Maternal birthweight and diet in pregnancy in relation to the infant's thinness at birth. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 104, 663667.

BC Gohlke , A Huber , K Hecher , R Fimmers , P Bartmann & CL Roth (2005) Fetal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and ghrelin in association with birth weight and postnatal growth in monozygotic twins with discordant growth. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90, 22702274.

D Haig (1996) Altercation of generations: genetic conflicts of pregnancy. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 35, 226232.

CN Hales & DJ Barker (1992) Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35, 595601.

CN Hales , DJ Barker , PM Clark , LJ Cox , C Fall , C Osmond & PD Winter (1991) Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. British Medical Journal 303, 10191022.

AT Hattersley , F Beards , E Ballantyne , M Appleton , R Harvey & S Ellard (1998) Mutations in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight. Nature Genetics 19, 268270.

V Hesse , M Voigt , A Salzler , S Steinberg , K Friese , E Keller , R Gausche & R Eisele (2003) Alterations in height, weight, and body mass index of newborns, children, and young adults in eastern Germany after German reunification. Journal of Pediatrics 142, 259262.

JM Holly , CP Smith , DB Dunger , RJ Howell , T Chard , LA Perry , MO Savage , S Cianfarani , LH Rees & JA Wass (1989) Relationship between the pubertal fall in sex hormone binding globulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-I. A synchronized approach to pubertal development? Clinical Endocrinology 31, 277284.

L Ibanez , K Ong , DB Dunger & F de Zegher (2006) Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91, 21532158.

G Iniguez , K Ong , R Bazaes , A Avila , T Salazar , D Dunger & V Mericq (2006) Longitudinal changes in insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin sensitivity, and secretion from birth to age three years in small-for-gestational-age children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91, 46454649.

RB Jensen , M Chellakooty , S Vielwerth , A Vaag , T Larsen , G Greisen , NE Skakkebaek , T Scheike & A Juul (2003) Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life: does insulin-like growth factor-I play a role? Hormone Research 60, Suppl. 3, 136148.

LC Low , SY Tam , EY Kwan , AM Tsang & J Karlberg (2001) Onset of significant GH dependence of serum IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 concentrations in early life. Pediatric Research 50, 737742.

PM McKeigue , B Shah & MG Marmot (1991) Relation of central obesity and insulin resistance with high diabetes prevalence and cardiovascular risk in South Asians. Lancet 337, 382386.

F Mathews , P Yudkin & A Neil (1999) Influence of maternal nutrition on outcome of pregnancy: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 319, 339343.

AR Ness (2004) The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) – a resource for the study of the environmental determinants of childhood obesity. European Journal of Endocrinology 151, Suppl. 3, U141U149.

KK Ong , ML Ahmed , PM Emmett , MA Preece & DB Dunger (2000) Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 320, 967971.

KK Ong , ML Ahmed , A Sherriff , KA Woods , A Watts , J Golding & DB Dunger (1999) Cord blood leptin is associated with size at birth and predicts infancy weight gain in humans. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 11451148.

KK Ong & DB Dunger (2004) Birth weight, infant growth and insulin resistance. European Journal of Endocrinology 151, Suppl. 3, U131U139.

KK Ong , PM Emmett , S Noble , A Ness & DB Dunger (2006) Dietary energy intake at the age of 4 months predicts postnatal weight gain and childhood body mass index. Pediatrics 117, e503e508.

KK Ong , CJ Petry , PM Emmett , MS Sandhu , W Kiess , CN Hales , AR Ness & DB Dunger (2004) Insulin sensitivity and secretion in normal children related to size at birth, postnatal growth, and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Diabetologia 47, 10641070.

KK Ong , MA Preece , PM Emmett , ML Ahmed & DB Dunger (2002) Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longitudinal birth cohort study and analysis. Pediatric Research 52, 863867.

M Ounsted , A Scott & VA Moar (1988) Constrained and unconstrained fetal growth: associations with some biological and pathological factors. Annals of Human Biology 15, 119129.

M Ounsted , A Scott & C Ounsted (1986) Transmission through the female line of a mechanism constraining human fetal growth. Annals of Human Biology 13, 143151.

CJ Petry , KK Ong , BJ Barratt , D Wingate , HJ Cordell , SM Ring , ME Pembrey , W Reik , JA Todd & DB Dunger (2005) Common polymorphism in H19 associated with birthweight and cord blood IGF-II levels in humans. BMC Genetics 6, 22.

DJ Pettitt , WC Knowler , PH Bennett , KA Aleck & HR Baird (1987) Obesity in offspring of diabetic Pima Indian women despite normal birth weight. Diabetes Care 10, 7680.

JJ Reilly , AR Dorosty & PM Emmett (1999) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in British children: cohort study. British Medical Journal 319, 1039.

B Reusens & C Remacle (2006) Programming of the endocrine pancreas by the early nutritional environment. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 38, 913922.

I Rogers , P Emmett , D Baker & J Golding (1998) Financial difficulties, smoking habits, composition of the diet and birthweight in a population of pregnant women in the South West of England. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 251260.

MS Sandhu , AH Heald , JM Gibson , JK Cruickshank , DB Dunger & NJ Wareham (2002) Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and development of glucose intolerance: a prospective observational study. Lancet 359, 17401745.

G Seghieri , R Anichini , A De Bellis , L Alviggi , F Franconi & MC Breschi (2002) Relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus and low maternal birth weight. Diabetes Care 25, 17611765.

A Silbergeld , L Lazar , B Erster , R Keret , R Tepper & Z Laron (1989) Serum growth hormone binding protein activity in healthy neonates, children and young adults: correlation with age, height and weight. Clinical Endocrinology 31, 295303.

BL Silverman , T Rizzo , OC Green , NH Cho , RJ Winter , ES Ogata , GE Richards & BE Metzger (1991) Long-term prospective evaluation of offspring of diabetic mothers. Diabetes 40, Suppl. 2, 121125.

E Sobngwi , P Boudou , F Mauvais-Jarvis , H Leblanc , G Velho , P Vexiau (2003) Effect of a diabetic environment in utero on predisposition to type 2 diabetes. Lancet 361, 18611865.

M Stumvoll , PA Tataranni & C Bogardus (2005) The hyperbolic law – a 25-year perspective. Diabetologia 48, 207209.

K Ueki , T Okada , J Hu , CW Liew , A Assmann , GM Dahlgren (2006) Total insulin and IGF-I resistance in pancreatic beta cells causes overt diabetes. Nature Genetics 38, 583588.

FA Van Assche , L Aerts & F De Prins (1978) A morphological study of the endocrine pancreas in human pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 85, 818820.

TW van Haeften & TB Twickler (2004) Insulin-like growth factors and pancreas beta cells. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 34, 249255.

EM Widdowson & RA McCance (1975) A review: new thoughts on growth. Pediatric Research 9, 154156.

DR Williams , NJ Wareham , DC Brown , CD Byrne , PM Clark , BD Cox (1995) Undiagnosed glucose intolerance in the community: the Isle of Ely Diabetes Project. Diabetic Medicine 12, 3035.

World Health Organization Expert Consultation (2004) Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 363, 157163.

S Xuan , T Kitamura , J Nakae , K Politi , Y Kido , PE Fisher (2002) Defective insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells lacking type 1 IGF receptor. Journal of Clinical Investigation 110, 10111019.

K Yuen , N Wareham , J Frystyk , S Hennings , J Mitchell , L Fryklund & D Dunger (2004) Short-term low-dose growth hormone administration in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and the metabolic syndrome: effects on beta-cell function and post-load glucose tolerance. European Journal of Endocrinology 151, 3945.

KC Yuen , J Frystyk , DK White , TB Twickler , HP Koppeschaar , PE Harris , L Fryklund , PR Murgatroyd & DB Dunger (2005) Improvement in insulin sensitivity without concomitant changes in body composition and cardiovascular risk markers following fixed administration of a very low growth hormone (GH) dose in adults with severe GH deficiency. Clinical Endocrinology 63, 428436.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 84 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 140 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.