Allan JD, Mason A & Moss AD (1973) Nutritional supplementation in treatment of cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. American Journal of Diseases of Children 126, 22–26.
Altman DG (1991) Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London: Chapman and Hall.
Arnold C & Richter M (1989) The effect of oral nutritional supplements on head and neck cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology 16, 1595–1599.
Berry HK, Kellogg FW, Hunt MM, Ingberg RL, Richter L & Gutjahr C (1975) Dietary supplement and nutrition in children with cystic fibrosis. American Journal of Diseases of Children 129, 165–171.
Breslow RA, Hallfrisch J, Guy DG, Crawley B & Goldberg AP (1993) The importance of dietary protein in healing pressure ulcers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 41, 357–362.
Cederholm TE & Hellstrom KH (1995) Reversibility of protein-energy malnutrition in a group of chronically-ill elderly outpatients. Clinical Nutrition 14, 81–87.
Chlebowski RT, Beall G, Grosvenor M, Lillington L, Weintraub N, Ambler C, Richards EW, Abbruzzese BC, McCamish MA & Cope FO (1993) Long-term effects of early nutritional support with new enterotropic peptide-based formula vs. standard enteral formula in HIV-infected patients: Randomized, prospective trial. Nutrition 9, 507–512.
Department of Health (1991–7) Prescription Cost Analysis, England .London: Government Statistical Service, Department of Health.
Dickersin K, Scherer R & Lefebvre C (1994) Identifying relevant studies for systematic reviews. British Medical Journal 309, 1286–1291.
Donahoe M, Rogers RM, Openbrier DR & Wilson DO (1989) Effect of calorie intake on muscle strength and walking distance in malnourished COPD. American Review of Respiratory Disease 139, A334.
Douglass HO, Milliron S, Nava H, Eriksson B, Thomas P, Novick A & Holyoke ED (1978) Elemental diet as an adjuvant for patients with locally advanced gastrointestinal cancer receiving radiation therapy: a prospectively randomized study. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2, 682–686.
Efthimiou J, Fleming J, Gomes C & Spiro SG (1988) The effect of supplementary oral nutrition in poorly nourished patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 137, 1075–1082.
Elia M & Lunn PG (1996) Biological markers of protein-energy malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition 16, Suppl. 1, 1–46.
Elkort RJ, Baker FL, Vitale JJ & Cordano A (1981) Long-term nutritional support as an adjunct to chemotherapy for breast cancer. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 5, 385–390.
Evans WK, Nixon DW, Daly JM, Ellenberg SS, Gardner L, Wolfe E, Shepherd FA, Feld R, Gralla R, Fine S, Kemeny N, Jeejeebhoy KN, Heymsfield S & Hoffman FA (1987) A randomized study of oral nutritional support versus ad lib nutritional intake during chemotherapy for advanced colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 5, 113–124.
Fiatarone MA, O'Neill EF, Ryan ND, Clements KM, Solares GR, Nelson ME, Roberts SB, Kehayias JJ, Lipsitz LA & Evans WJ (1994) Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. New England Journal of Medicine 330, 1769–1775.
Foster KJ, Brown MS, Alberti KGMM, Buchanan RB, Dewar P, Karran SJ, Price CP & Wood PJ (1980) The metabolic effects of abdominal irradiation in man with and without dietary therapy with an elemental diet. Clinical Radiology 31, 13–17.
Fuenzalida CE, Petty TL, Jones ML, Jarrett S, Harbeck RJ, Terry RW & Hambidge KM (1990) The immune response to short-term nutritional intervention in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 142, 49–56.
Gray-Donald K, Payette H & Boutier V (1995) Randomized clinical trial of nutritional supplementation shows little effect on functional status among free-living elderly. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2965–2971.
Gray-Donald K, Payette H, Boutier V & Page S (1994) Evaluation of the dietary intake of homebound elderly and the feasibility of dietary supplementation. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 13, 277–284.
Harries AD, Jones LA, Danis V, Fifield R, Heatley RV, Newcombe RG & Rhodes J (1983) Controlled trial of supplemented oral nutrition in Crohn's disease. Lancet i, 887–890.
Hellerstein MK, Pelfini A, Hoa R, Clinton R, Faix R, Richards EW, Abbruzzese BC, McCamish MA & Cope FO (1994) A fully randomised, prospective, double-blind short-term trial contrasting the use of a novel enterotropic peptide-based formula and the current standard of practice enteral formula in HIV and AIDS patients: evaluation of multiple clinical parameters. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 18, 25S.
Hirsch S, Bunout D, De La Maza P, Iturriaga H, Petermann M, Icazar G, Gattas V & Ugarte G (1993) Controlled trial on nutrition supplementation in outpatients with symptomatic alcoholic cirrhosis. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 17, 119–124.
James WPT & Ralph A (eds) (1992) The Functional Significance of Low Body Mass Index. Proceedings of an I/D/E/C/G Workshop. Rome, Italy: Nestlé Foundation.
Jensen MB & Hessov IB (1997) Dietary supplementation at home improves the regain of lean body mass after surgery. Nutrition 13, 422–430.
Keele AM, Bray MJ, Emery PW, Duncan HD & Silk DBA (1997) Two phase randomised controlled clinical trial of postoperative oral dietary supplements in surgical patients. Gut 40, 393–399.
Kirschner BS, Klich JR, Kalman SS, DeFavaro MV & Rosenberg IH (1981) Reversal of growth retardation in Crohn's disease with therapy emphasizing oral nutritional restitution. Gastroenterology 80, 10–15.
Kissileff HR (1985) Effects of physical state (liquid-solid) of foods on food intake: procedural and substantive contributions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 956–965.
Knowles JB, Fairbarn MS, Wiggs BJ, Chan-Yan C & Pardy RL (1988) Dietary supplementation and respiratory muscle performance in patients with COPD. Chest 93, 977–983.
Kuhlmann MK, Schmidt F & Kohler H (1997) Oral nutritional support in malnourished HD-patients. Preliminary results of a randomised controlled study. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 8, 199A.
Lewis MI, Belman MJ & Dorr-Uyemura L (1987) Nutritional supplementation in ambulatory patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 135, 1062–1068.
Lipschitz DA, Mitchell CO, Steele RW & Milton KY (1985) Nutritional evaluation and supplementation of elderly subjects participating in a ‘Meals on Wheels’ program. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 9, 343–347.
Lynch K, Henry DA, Roberts C & Coburn JW (1983) Clinical trial with oral carbohydrate supplement in hemodialysis patients: A nutritional evaluation. Dialysis and Transplantation 12, 566–568.
McManus RJ, Wilson S, Delaney BC, Fitzmaurice DA, Hyde CJ, Tobias RS, Jowett S & Hobbs FDR (1998) Review of the usefulness of contacting other experts when conducting a literature search for systematic reviews. British Medical Journal 317, 1562–1563.
Malagelada J-R, Go VLW & Summerskill WHJ (1979) Different gastric, pancreatic, and biliary responses to solid-liquid or homogenized meals. Digestive Disease and Sciences 24, 101–110.
Meredith CN, Frontera WR, O'Reilly KP & Evans WJ (1992) Body composition in elderly men: effect of dietary modification during strength training. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40, 155–162.
Nayel H, El-Ghoneimy E & El-Haddad S (1992) Impact of nutritional supplementation on treatment delay and morbidity in patients with head and neck tumours treated with irradiation. Nutrition 8, 13–18.
Norregaard O, Tottrup A, Saaek A & Hessov I (1987) Effects of oral nutritional supplements to adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical Respiratory Physiology 23, Suppl. 12, 388S.
Otte KE, Ahlburg P, D'Amore F & Stellfeld M (1989) Nutritional repletion in malnourished patients with emphysema. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 13, 152–156.
Ovesen L & Allingstrup L (1992) Different quantities of two commercial liquid diets consumed by weight-losing cancer patients. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 16, 275–278.
Parsons HG, Beaudry P, Dumas A & Pencharz PB (1983) Energy needs and growth in children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2, 44–49.
Pichard C, Sudre P, Karsegard V, Yerly S, Slosman DO, Delley V, Perrin L, Hirschel B & Swiss HIV Cohort study (1998) A randomized double-blind controlled study of 6 months of oral nutritional supplementation with arginine, omega-3 fatty acids in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 12, 53–63.
Plata-Salaman C (1996) Anorexia during acute and chronic disease. Nutrition 12, 69–78.
Pliner PL (1973) Effect of liquid and solid preloads on eating behaviour of obese and normal persons. Physiology and Behavior 11, 285–290.
Poppit SD & Prentice AM (1996) Energy density and its role in the control of food intake: evidence from metabolic and community studies. Appetite 26, 153–174.
Rabeneck L, Palmer A, Knowles JB, Seidehamel RJ, Harris CL, Merkel KL, Risser JMH & Akrabawi SS (1998) A randomized controlled trial evaluating nutrition counseling with or without oral supplementation in malnourished HIV-infected patients. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 98, 434–438.
Ramsey BW, Farrell PM, Pencharz P & Consensus Committee (1992) Nutritional assessment and management in cystic fibrosis: a consensus report. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 108–116.
Rogers RM, Donahoe M & Costantino J (1992) Physiologic effects of oral supplemental feeding in malnourished patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 146, 1511–1517.
Schurch B & Scrimshaw NS (eds) (1987) Chronic Energy Deficiency: Consequences and Related Issues .Background papers and working group reports presented at an I/D/E/C/G meeting of August 3–7, 1987. Rome, Italy: Nestlé Foundation.
Shepherd RW, Thomas BJ, Bennett D, Cooksley WGE & Ward LC (1983) Changes in body composition and muscle protein degradation during nutritional supplementation in nutritionally growth-retarded children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2, 439–446.
Simko V (1983) Long-term tolerance of a special amino acid oral formula in patients with advanced liver disease. Nutrition Reports International 27, 765–773.
Skypala IJ, Ashworth FA, Hodson ME, Leonard CH, Knox A, Hiller EJ, Wolfe SP, Littlewood JM, Morton A, Conway S, Patchell C, Weller P, McCarthy H, Redmond A & Dodge J (1998) Oral nutritional supplements produce significant weight gain in cystic fibrosis patients. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 11, 95–104.
Sondel SA, Parrell SW, Becker D & Mischler EH (1987) Oral nutritional supplementation in cystic fibrosis. Nutritional Support Services 7, 20–22.
Stauffer JL, Carbone JE & Bendoski MT (1986) Effects of diet supplementation on anthropometric and laboratory nutritional parameters in malnourished ambulatory patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). American Review of Respiratory Disease 133, A204.
Stratton RJ & Elia M (1999a) A critical systematic analysis of the use of oral nutritional supplements in the community. Clinical Nutrition 18, Suppl. 2, 29–84.
Stratton RJ & Elia M (1999b) The effects of enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition on appetite sensations and food intake in health and disease. Clinical Nutrition 18, 63–70.
Stubbs RJ (1992) Macronutrients, appetite and energy balance in humans. PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge.
Stubbs RJ, Johnstone AM, O'Reilly LM, Barton K & Reid C (1998) The effect of covertly manipulating the energy density of mixed diets on ad libitum food intake in ‘pseudo free-living’ humans. International Journal of Obesity 22, 980–987.
Tisdale MJ (1997) Cancer cachexia: Metabolic alterations and clinical manifestations. Nutrition 13, 1–7.
Tolia V (1995) Very early onset nonorganic failure to thrive in infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 20, 73–80.
Volkert D, Hubsch S, Oster P & Schlierf G (1996) Nutritional support and functional status in undernourished geriatric patients during hospitalization and 6-month follow-up. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 8, 386–395.
Welch PK, Dowson M & Endres JM (1991) The effect of nutrient supplements on high risk long term care residents receiving pureed diets. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly 10, 49–62.
Wilson DO, Rogers RM, Sanders MH, Pennock BE & Reilly JJ (1986) Nutritional intervention in malnourished patients with emphysema. American Review of Respiratory Disease 134, 672–677.
Woo J, Ho SC, Mak YT, Law LK & Cheung A (1994) Nutritional status of elderly patients during recovery from chest infection and the role of nutritional supplementation assessed by a prospective randomized single-blind trial. Age and Ageing 23, 40–48.
Yassa JG, Prosser R & Dodge JA (1978) Effects of an artificial diet on growth of patients with cystic fibrosis. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 53, 777–783.