Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Symposium on ’Nutrition in the post-genomic era’ Plenary session 4: Genetic variation and diet-related disease: Gene polymorphisms, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  • W. Martin Howell (a1), Philip C. Calder (a1) and Robert F. Grimble (a2)

Abstract

Re´sume´Parmi les ge`nes dont les produits jouent un rle critique dans la re´gulation de la re´ponse immune, on trouve les familles de ge`nes de l'antige`ne leucocyte humain (ALH) et de la cytokine. Les ge`nes ALH sont les plus polymorphes du ge´nome humain, et ce polymorphisme entraine des diffe´rences fonctionnelles des mole´cules ALH exprime´es, qui se traduit par des diffe´rences individuelles dans la manie`re dont des peptides antige´niques se pre´sentent aux cellules T. De plus, un nombre conside´rable de polymorphismes des ge`nes associe´s a la cytokine ont e´te´ identifie´s, la plupart d'entre eux se produisent au niveau du promoteur de ces ge`nes, ce que dans de nombreux cas se traduit par l'expression diffe´rentielle in vitro de leurs respectifs produits ge´ne´tiques pro- ou anti-inflammatoire. Des polymorphismes ALH particuliers aboutirent a` des associations bien de´finies avec un grand nombre de maladies immunologiquement medie´es, parmi lesquelles quelques-unes avec des facteurs de risque die´te´tique. Par exemple, des individus de ge´notype HLA-DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 ont un risque deux cent fois plus grand de de´velopper une intole´rance au gluten alimentaire (maladie ce´liaque), et des facteurs additionnels en relation avec l'ALH peuvent influencer le de´veloppement d'un lymphome maligne dans une maladie ce´liaque existante. De mme, des alle`les HLA-DRB1 qui partage une se´quence motive commune constituent le premier facteur de risque ge´ne´tique de l'arthrite rhumatode. L'influence de polymorphismes associe´s a une expression de cytokine diffe´rentiel sur la susceptibilite´ aux maladies pre´sent dans ce moment un grand inte´rt. La plupart de l'attention a e´tait centre´ les associations avec la susceptibilite´ de maladies medie´es immunologiquement be´nignes, parmi eux un grand nombre de maladies de l'intestin. Toutefois, un travail re´cent dans notre laboratoire indique que les polymorphismes de la cytokine peuvent influencer la susceptibilite´ a` certains cancers (ainsi que son pronostic), entre eux le me´lanome de peau maligne et des tumeurs solides qui peuvent tre affecte´s par l'alimentation, comme le cancer de prostate (collaboration avec le CRC/BPG e´tude familial du cancer de prostate Royaume-Uni). De plus, des travails pre´liminaires sugge`rent que la modulation par l'alimentation des niveaux d'expression de certaines cytokines dans des sujets humains peut tre de´pendent du ge´notype.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Symposium on ’Nutrition in the post-genomic era’ Plenary session 4: Genetic variation and diet-related disease
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Symposium on ’Nutrition in the post-genomic era’ Plenary session 4: Genetic variation and diet-related disease
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Symposium on ’Nutrition in the post-genomic era’ Plenary session 4: Genetic variation and diet-related disease
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr W. M. Howell, fax +44 23 8070 1416, email wmh1@soton.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Allen, RD (1999) Polymorphism of the human TNF-α promoter - random variation or functional diversity? Molecular Immunology 36, 10171027.
Arentz-Hansen, H, Korner, R, Molberg, O, Quartsen, H, Vader, W, Kooy, YMC, Lundin, KEA, Koning, F, Roepstorff, P, Sollid, LM & McAdam, SN (2000) The intestinal T cell response to a-gliadin in adult celiac disease is focused on a single deamidated glutamine targeted by tissue transglutaminase. Journal of Experimental Medicine 191, 603612.
Arguello, JR, Little, A-M, Bohan, E, Goldman, J, Marsh, SG & Madrigal, JA (1998) High resolution HLA class I typing by Reference Strand Mediated Conformation Analysis (RSCA). Tissue Antigens 52, 5766.
Bateman, AC, Hemmatpour, SK, Theaker, JM & Howell, WM (1997) Nested polymerase chain reaction-based HLA class II typing for the unique identification of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Journal of Pathology 181, 228234.
Bateman, AC & Howell, WM (1999) Human leukocyte antigens and cancer: is it in our genes? Journal of Pathology 188, 231236.
Bateman, AC, Leung, ST, Howell, WM, Roche, WR, Jones, DB & Theaker, JM (1994) Detection of specimen contamination in routine histopathology by HLA class II typing using the polymerase chain reaction and sequence specific oligonucleotide probing. Journal of Pathology 173, 243248.
Bateman, AC, Sage, DA, Al-Talib, RK, Theaker, JM, Jones, DB & Howell, WM (1996) Investigation of specimen mislabelling in paraffin-embedded tissue using a rapid, allele-specific, PCR-based HLA class II typing method. Histopathology 28, 169174.
Bateman, AC, Turner, SJ, Theaker, JM & Howell, WM (1998) HLA-DQB1*0303 and *0301 alleles influence susceptibility to and prognosis in cutaneous malignant melanoma in the British caucasian population. Tissue Antigens 52, 6773.
Bateman, AC, Turner, SJ, Theaker, JM, Warren, BF & Howell, WM (1999) Polymerase chain reaction-based human leukocyte antigen genotyping for the investigation of suspected gastrointestinal biopsy contamination. Gut 45, 259263.
Baum, H, Davies, H & Peakman, M (1996) Molecular mimicry in the MHC: hidden clues to autoimmunity? Immunology Today 17, 6470.
Belluzzi, A, Brignola, C, Campieri, M, Pera, A, Boschi, S & Miglioli, M (1996) Effect of an enteric coated fish oil preparation on relapses in Crohn's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 15571616.
Bidwell, J, Keen, L, Gallagher, G, Kimberly, R, Huinzinga, T, McDermott, MF, Oksenberg, J, McNicholl, J, Pociot, F, Hardt, C & D'Alfonso, S (1999) Cytokine gene polymorphism in human disease: on-line databases. Genes and Immunity 1, 319.
Bidwell, J & Navarrete, C (2000) Histocompatibility Testing .London: Imperial College Press.
Bidwell, JL, Bidwell, EA, Savage, DA, Middleton, D, Klouda, PT & Bradley, BA (1988) A DNA-RFLP typing system that positively identifies serologically well-defined and ill-defined HLA-DR and DQ alleles, including DRw10. Transplantation 45, 640646.
Blasczyk, R, Hahn, U, Wehling, J, Huhn, D & Salama, A (1995) Complete subtyping of the HLA-A locus by sequence-specific amplification followed by direct sequencing or single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Tissue Antigens 46, 8695.
Bodmer, JG, Tonks, S, Oza, AM, Mikata, A, Takenouchi, T, Lister, TA & collaborating, centres (1992) Hodgkin's disease study. In HLA 1991, Vol. 1, pp. 701709 [ Tsuji, K, Aizawa, M and Sasazuki, T, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bouma, G, Oudkerk, Pool M, Crusius, JB, Schreuder, GM, Hellemans, HP, Meijer, BU, Kostense, PJ, Giphart, MJ, Meuwissen, SG & Pena, AS (1997) Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); HLA genes in the predisposition to suffer from ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Clinical and Experimental Immunology 109, 175179.
Brinkman, BM, Huizinga, TW, Kurban, SS, van der, Velde EA, Schreuder, GM, Hazes, JM, Breeveld, FC & Verweij, CL (1997) Tumour necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis: association with susceptibility to, or severity of, disease? British Journal of Rheumatology 36, 516521.
Calder, PC (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. Lipids 36, 10071024.
Caughey, GE, Mantzioris, E, Gibson, RA, Cleland, LG & James, MJ (1996) The effect on human tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta production of diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 116122.
Chouchane, L, Ben, Ahmed S, Baccouche, S & Remadi, S (1997) Polymorphism in the tumour necrosis factor-a promotor region and in the heat shock protein 70 genes associated with malignant tumours. Cancer 80, 14891496.
Clark, WH Jr, Elder, DE, Guerry, D IV, Braitman, LE, Trock, BJ, Schultz, D, Synnestvedt, M & Halpern, AC (1989) Model predicting survival in stage I melanoma based on tumour progression. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 81, 18931904.
Culig, Z, Hobisch, A, Herold, M, Hittmair, A, Thurnher, M, Eder, IE, Cronauer, MV, Rieser, C, Ramoner, R, Bartsch, G, Klocker, H & Konwalinka, G (1998) Interleukin 1beta mediates the modulatory effects of monocytes on LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. British Journal of Cancer 78, 10041011.
Demeter, J, Porzsolt, F, Ramisch, S, Schmidt, D, Schmid, M & Messer, G (1997) Polymorphism of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha genes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. British Journal of Haematology 97, 107112.
Dummer, W, Becker, JC, Schwaaf, A, Leverkus, M, Moll, T & Brocker, EB (1995) Elevated serum levels of interleukin-10 in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Melanoma Research 5, 6768.
Fishman, D, Faulds, G, Jeffery, R, Mohamed-Ali, V, Yudkin, JS, Humphries, S & Woo, P (1998) The effect of novel polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on IL-6 transcription and plasma IL-6 levels, and an association with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 102, 13691376.
Fox, DA (1997) The role of T cells in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: new perspectives. Arthritis and Rheumatism 40, 598609.
Grimble, R, Calder, P, Howell, W, O'Reilly, G, Hirrell, S, Turner, S, Markovic, O & East, M (2002) Associations between polymorphisms in the lymphotoxin-α (LT-α) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) genes and the ability of fish oil to suppress TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in healthy men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76, 454459.
Grimble, RF (1996) Interaction between nutrients, pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation. Clinical Science 91, 121130.
Hajeer, AH, Lazarus, M, Turner, D, Mageed, RA, Vencovsky, J, Sinnott, PJ, Hutchinson, IV & Ollier, WE (1998) IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 27, 142145.
Hemmatpour, SK, Dunn, PPJ, Evans, PR, Green, A & Howell, WM (1998) Functional characterization and exon 2-intron 2-exon 3 gene sequence of HLA-B*2712 as found in a British family. European Journal of Immunogenetics 25, 395402.
Howell, WM, Bateman, AC, Turner, SJ, Collins, A & Theaker, JM (2002a) Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor single nucleotide polymorphisms on tumour development in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Genes and Immunity 3, 229232.
Howell, WM, Leung, ST, Jones, DB, Nakshabendi, I, Hall, MA, Lanchbury, JS, Ciclitira, PJ & Wright, DH (1995) HLA-DRB, DQA and DQB polymorphism in celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma: common features and additional risk factors for malignancy. Human Immunology 43, 2937.
Howell, WM & Poole, KL (2002) The special case of HLA genes: detection and resolution of multiple polymorphic sites within a single gene. In Molecular Genetic Epidemiology - A Laboratory Perspective, pp. 131152. [Day, INM, editor].Heidelberg: Springer.
Howell, WM, Turner, SJ, Bateman, AC & Theaker, JM (2001) Il-10 promoter polymorphisms influence tumour development in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Genes and Immunity 2, 2531.
Howell, WM, Turner, SJ, Collins, A, Bateman, AC & Theaker, JM (2002b) Influence of TNFα and LTα single nucleotide polymorphisms on susceptibility to and prognosis in cutaneous malignant melanoma in the British population. European Journal of Immunogenetics 29, 1723.
Huang, S, Ullrich, SE & Bar-Eli, M (1999) Regulation of tumour growth and metastasis by interleukin-10: the melanoma experience. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research 19, 697703.
Jacob, CO, Franek, Z, Lewis, GD, Koo, M, Hansen, JA & McDevitt, HO (1990) Heritable major histocompatibility complex class II-associated differences in production of tumor necrosis factor-a: relevance to genetic predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87, 12331237.
John, S, Myerscough, A, Marlow, A, Hajeer, A, Silman, A, Ollier, W & Worthington, J (1998) Linkage of cytokine genes to rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence of genetic heterogeneity. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 57, 361365.
Karhukorpi, J & Karttunen, R (2001) Genotyping interleukin-10 high and low producers with single-tube bi-directional allele-specific amplification. Experimental and Clinical Immunogenetics 18, 6770.
Kay, RA (1996) TCR gene polymorphisms and autoimmune disease. European Journal of Immunogenetics 23, 161177.
Klein, J & Sato, A (2000) The HLA system. Second of two parts. New England Journal of Medicine 343, 782786.
Knight, JC & Kwiatowski, D (1999) Inherited variability of tumor necrosis factor production and susceptibility to infectious disease. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians 111, 290298.
Knight, JC, Udalova, I, Hill, AVS, Greenwood, BM, Peshu, N, Marsh, K & Kwiatowski, D (1999) A polymorphism that affects OCT-1 binding to the TNF promoter region is associated with severe malaria. Nature Genetics 22, 145150.
Krausa, P & Browning, M (1996) Detection of HLA gene polymorphism. In HLA and MHC: Genes, Molecules and Function, pp. 113137 [ Browning, M and McMichael, A, editors ]. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd.
Kremer, JM (2000) n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 34953515.
Kroeger, KM, Steer, JH, Joyce, DA & Abraham, LJ (2000) Effects of stimulus and cell type on the expression of the -308 tumour necrosis factor promoter polymorphism. Cytokine 12, 110119.
Kutukculer, N, Shenton, BK, Clark, K, Rigg, KM, Forsythe, JL, Kirby, JA, Proud, G & Taylor, RM (1995) Renal allograft rejection: temporal relationship and predictive value of plasma TNF (alpha and beta), IFN-gamma and soluble ICAM-1. Transplant International 8, 4550.
Lazarus, M, Hajeer, AH, Turner, D, Sinnott, P, Worthington, J, Ollier, WE & Hutchinson, IV (1997) Genetic variation in the interleukin 10 gene promoter and systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Rheumatology 24, 23142317.
Lechler, R & Warrens, A (2000) HLA in Health and Disease, 2nd ed. London: Academic Press Ltd.
Le, Drean E, Gervois, N, Diez, E, Semana, G, Dreno, B & Jotreau, F (1995) HLA class II-restricted recognition of common tumour epitopes on human melanoma cells by CD4+ melanoma-infiltrating lymphocytes. European Journal of Immunology 25, 27322736.
Leek, RD, Lewis, CE, Whitehouse, R, Greenall, M, Clarke, J & Harris, AL (1996) Association of macrophage infiltration with angiogenesis and prognosis in invasive breast carcinoma. Cancer Research 56, 46254629.
Lim, S, Crawley, E, Woo, P & Barnes, PJ (1998) Haplotype associated with low interleukin-10 production in patients with severe asthma (letter). Lancet 352, 113.
McCarron, SL, Edwards, S, Evans, PR, Gibbs, R, Dearnaley, DP, Dowe, A, Southgate, D, The, CRC/BPG UK Familial Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators, Easton, DF, Eeles, RA & Howell, WM (2002) Influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the development of prostate cancer. Cancer Research 62, 33693372.
Maini, RN & Taylor, PC (2000) Anti-cytokine therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Annual Review of Medicine 51, 207229.
Marshall, SE, McLaren, AJ, Haldar, NA, Bunce, M, Morris, PJ & Welsk, KI (2000) The impact of recipient cytokine genotype on acute rejection after renal transplantation. Transplantation 70, 14851491.
Mayser, P, Mrowietz, U, Arenberger, P, Bartak, P, Buchwald, J, Christophers, E, Jablonska, S, Salmhofer, W, Schill, WB, Kramer, HJ, Schlotzer, E, Mayer, K, Seeger, W & Grimminger, F (1998) Omega-3 fatty acid-based lipid infusion in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 38, 539547.
Messer, G, Spengler, U, Jung, MC, Honold, G, Blomer, K, Pape, GR, Riethmuller, G & Weiss, EH (1991) Polymorphic structure of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus: an NcoI polymorphism in the first intron of the human TNF-β gene correlates with a variant amino acid in position 26 and a reduced level of TNF-β production. Journal of Experimental Medicine 173, 209219.
Mittal, KK, Mickey, MR, Singal, DP & Terasaki, PI (1968) Serotyping for homotransplantation: refinement of microdroplet lymphocyte cytotoxicity test. Transplantation 6, 913927.
Moffatt, MF & Cookson, WO (1997) Tumour necrosis factor haplotypes and asthma. Human Molecular Genetics 6, 551554.
Murch, SH, Lamkin, VA, Savage, MO, Walker-Smith, JA & MacDonald, TT (1991) Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-a in childhood chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 32, 913917.
Nepom, GT (2000) HLA and type I diabetes. In HLA in Health and Disease, 2nd ed., pp. 231237 [ Lechler, R and Warrens, A, editors ]. London: Academic Press Ltd.
Nepom, GT, Gersuk, V & Nepom, BS (1996) Prognostic implications of HLA genotyping in the early assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology 23, 59.
Olerup, O & Zetterquist, H (1992) HLA-DR typing by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in 2 hours: An alternative to serological DR typing in clinical practice including donor-recipient matching in cadaveric transplantation. Tissue Antigens 39, 225235.
Ollier, W & Thomson, W (1992) Population genetics of rheumatoid arthritis. In Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, pp. 741759 [ Nepom, GT, editor ]. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.
Perrey, C, Pravica, V, Sinnott, PJ & Hutchinson, IV (1998) Genotyping for polymorphisms in interferon-γ, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β1 and tumour necrosis factor-α genes: a technical report. Transplant Immunology 6, 193197.
Poole, KL, Gibbs, PJ, Evans, PR, Sadek, SA & Howell, WM (2001) Influence of patient and donor cytokine genotypes on renal allograft rejection: evidence from a single study. Transplant Immunology 8, 259265.
Robinson, J, Waller, MJ, Parham, P, Bodmer, JG & Marsh, SGE (2001) IMGT/HLA Database - a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex. Nucleic Acids Research 29, 210213.
Ross, J (2000) Sequencing-based typing. In Histocompatibility Testing, pp. 213246 [Bidwell, J and Navarrete, C, editors]. London: Imperial College Press.
Ross, R (1993) The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s. Nature 362, 801809.
Sankaran, D, Ashraf, S, Martin, S, Roberts, I, Short, C, Dyer, PA, Sinnott, PJ & Hutchinson, IV (1998) High interleukin 10 producer genotype is not protective against renal allograft rejection in high TNFα producers. European Journal of Immunogenetics 25, 68.
Schulman, CC, Ekane, S & Zlotta, AR (2001) Nutrition and prostate cancer: evidence or suspicion? Urology 58, 318334.
Scott, H, Nilsen, E, Sollid, LM, Lundin, KE, Rugtveit, J, Molberg, O, Thorsby, E & Brandtzaeg, P (1997) Immunopathology of gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Springer Seminars in Immunopathology 18, 535553.
Sollid, LM, Spurkland, A & Thorsby, E (2000) HLA and gastrointestinal diseases. In HLA in Health and Disease, 2nd ed., pp. 249262 [ Lechler, R and Warrens, A, editors ].London: Academic Press Limited.
Sollid, LM & Thorsby, E (1993) HLA susceptibility genes in celiac disease: genetic mapping and role in pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 105, 910922.
Sorrentino, R & Tosi, R (1997) HLA-B27 subtypes: ankylosing spondylitis association versus peptide binding specificity. In HLA-B27 in the Development of Spondyloarthropathies, pp. 135144 [ López-Larrea, C, editor ]. Heidelberg: Springer.
Taylor, GM, Dearden, S, Payne, N, Ayres, M, Gokhale, DA, Birch, JM, Blair, V, Stevens, RF, Will, AM & Eden, OB (1998) Evidence that an HLA-DQA1-DQB1 haplotype influences susceptibility to childhood common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in boys provides further support for an infection-related aetiology. British Journal of Cancer 78, 561565.
Thorsby, E (1997) Invited anniversary review: HLA associated diseases. Human Immunology 53, 111.
Turner, D, Grant, S, Yonan, N, Sheldon, S, Dyer, PA, Sinnott, PJ & Hutchinson, IV (1997a) Cytokine gene polymorphism and heart transplant rejection. Transplantation 64, 776779.
Turner, DM, Williams, DM, Sankaran, D, Lazarus, M, Sinnott, PJ & Hutchinson, IV (1997b) An investigation of polymorphism in the interleukin-10 gene promoter. European Journal of Immunogenetics 24, 18.
Uryu, N, Maeda, M, Ota, M, Tsuji, K & Inoko, H (1990) A simple and rapid method for HLA-DRB and -DQB typing by digestion of PCR-amplified DNA with allele specific restriction endonucleases. Tissue Antigens 35, 2031.
van der, Poll T & van Deventer, SJ (1999) Cytokines and anticytokines in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 13, 413426.
Vesalainen, S, Lipponen, R, Talja, M & Syrjanen, K (1994) Histological grade, perineural infiltration, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes and apoptosis as determinants of long-term prognosis in prostatic adenocarcinoma. European Journal of Cancer 30, 17971803.
Westendorp, RG, Langermans, JAM, Huizinga, TW, Verweij, CL & Sturk, A (1997) Genetic influence on cytokine production and fatal meningococcal disease. Lancet 349, 170173.
Ye, S, Dillon, S, Ke, X, Collins, AR & Day, INM (2001) An efficient procedure for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nucleic Acids Research 29, e88.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed