This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.P Angulo (2002) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med 346, 1221–1231.
2.AJ Sanyal (2002) AGA technical review on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 123, 1705–1725.
3.JM Clark , FL Brancati & AM Diehl (2002) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 122, 1649–1657.
4.DE Kleiner , EM Brunt , M Van Natta (2005) Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 41, 1313–1321.
5.AP Levene , H Kudo , MR Thursz (2010) Is oil red-O staining and digital image analysis the gold standard for quantifying steatosis in the liver? Hepatology 51, 1859–1860.
6.IT Gilmore , A Burroughs , IM Murray-Lyon (1995) Indications, methods, and outcomes of percutaneous liver biopsy in England and Wales: an audit by the British Society of Gastroenterology and the Royal College of Physicians of London. Gut 36, 437–441.
7.NF Schwenzer , F Springer , C Schraml (2009) Non-invasive assessment and quantification of liver steatosis by ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. J Hepatol 51, 433–445.
8.SR Mehta , EL Thomas , JD Bell (2009) Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content. World J Gastroenterol 14, 3476–3483.
9.DP O'Regan , MF Callaghan , M Wylezinska-Arridge (2008) Liver fat content and T2*: simultaneous measurement by using breath-hold multiecho MR imaging at 3·0T-feasibility. Radiology 247, 550–557.
10.EL Thomas , G Hamilton , N Patel (2005) Hepatic triglyceride content and its relation to body adiposity: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Gut 54, 122–127.
11.JF Cobbold , JH Patel , RD Goldin (2010) Hepatic lipid profiling in chronic hepatitis C: an in vitro and in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Hepatol 52(1), 16–24.
12.JD Browning , LS Szczepaniak , R Dobbins (2004) Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. Hepatology 40, 1387–1395.
13.LS Szczepaniak , P Nurenberg , D Leonard (2005) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure hepatic triglyceride content: prevalence of hepatic steatosis in the general population. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288, E462–E468.
14.B Guiu , JM Petit , R Loffroy (2009) Quantification of liver fat content: comparison of triple-echo chemical shift gradient-echo imaging and in vivo proton MR spectroscopy. Radiology 250, 95–102.
15.G Bedogni , S Bellentani , L Miglioli (2006) The fatty liver index: a simple and accurate predictor of hepatic steatosis in the general population. BMC Gastroenterol 6, 33.
16.TS Church , JL Kuk , R Ross (2006) Association of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and waist circumference to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 130, 2023–2030.
17.P Angulo , JM Hui , G Marchesini (2007) The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology 45, 846–854.
18.IN Guha , J Parkes , PR Roderick (2006) Non-invasive markers associated with liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Gut 55, 1650–1660.
19.KG Alberti , P Zimmet & J Shaw (2006) Metabolic syndrome – a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Med 23, 469–480.
20.V Ratziu , S Bellentani , H Cortez-Pinto (2010) A position statement on NAFLD/NASH based on the EASL 2009 special conference. J Hepatol (Epublication ahead of print version).
21.CP Day & OF James (1998) Steatohepatitis: a tale of two “hits”? Gastroenterology 114, 842–845.
22.E Fabbrini , S Sullivan & S Klein (2010) Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: biochemical, metabolic, and clinical implications. Hepatology 51, 679–689.
23.O Cheung & AJ Sanyal (2009) Recent advances in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25, 230–237.
24.QM Anstee & RD Goldin (2006) Mouse models in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis research. Int J Exp Pathol 87, 1–16.
25.CP Day (2002) Pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 16, 663–678.
27.K Yamaguchi , L Yang , S McCall (2007) Inhibiting triglyceride synthesis improves hepatic steatosis but exacerbates liver damage and fibrosis in obese mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 45, 1366–1374.
28.K Cusi (2009) Role of insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Liver Dis 13, 545–563.
29.IA Leclercq , GC Farrell , J Field (2000) CYP2E1 and CYP4A as microsomal catalysts of lipid peroxides in murine nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Clin Invest 105, 1067–1075.
30.KD Bruce , FR Cagampang , M Argenton (2009) Maternal high-fat feeding primes steatohepatitis in adult mice offspring, involving mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipogenesis gene expression. Hepatology 50, 1796–1808.
31.JF Cobbold , QM Anstee , RD Goldin (2009) Phenotyping murine models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through metabolic profiling of intact liver tissue. Clin Sci (Lond) 116, 403–413.
32.JP Allard , E Aghdassi , S Mohammed (2008) Nutritional assessment and hepatic fatty acid composition in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a cross-sectional study. J Hepatol 48, 300–307.
33.P Puri , MM Wiest , O Cheung (2009) The plasma lipidomic signature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 50, 1827–1838.
34.LA Adams , JF Lymp , J St Sauver (2005) The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based cohort study. Gastroenterology 129, 113–121.
35.LA Adams , S Sanderson , KD Lindor (2005) The histological course of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a longitudinal study of 103 patients with sequential liver biopsies. J Hepatol 42, 132–138.
36.AJ Sanyal , C Banas , C Sargeant (2006) Similarities and differences in outcomes of cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis C. Hepatology 43, 682–689.
37.HB El Serag & AC Mason (1999) Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med 340, 745–750.
38.V Paradis , S Zalinski , E Chelbi (2009) Hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with metabolic syndrome often develop without significant liver fibrosis: a pathological analysis. Hepatology 49, 851–859.
39.K Promrat , DE Kleiner , HM Niemeier (2010) Randomized controlled trial testing the effects of weight loss on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 51, 121–129.
40.NA Johnson , T Sachinwalla , DW Walton (2009) Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss. Hepatology 50, 1105–1112.
42.G Musso , R Gambino , F De Michieli (2003) Dietary habits and their relations to insulin resistance and postprandial lipemia in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 37, 909–916.
43.H Cortez-Pinto , L Jesus , H Barros (2006) How different is the dietary pattern in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients? Clin Nutr 25, 816–823.
44.D Wang , Y Wei & MJ Pagliassotti (2006) Saturated fatty acids promote endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver injury in rats with hepatic steatosis. Endocrinology 147, 943–951.
45.G Musso , R Gambino , G Pacini (2009) Prolonged saturated fat-induced, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide elevation is associated with adipokine imbalance and liver injury in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: dysregulated enteroadipocyte axis as a novel feature of fatty liver. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 558–567.
47.LH Storlien , EW Kraegen , DJ Chisholm (1987) Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding in rats. Science 237, 885–888.
48.M Sekiya , N Yahagi , T Matsuzaka (2003) Polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate hepatic steatosis in obese mice by SREBP-1 suppression. Hepatology 38, 1529–1539.
49.M Capanni , F Calella , MR Biagini (2006) Prolonged n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation ameliorates hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 23, 1143–1151.
50.N Tanaka , K Sano , A Horiuchi (2008) Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid treatment improves nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 42, 413–418.
51.S Lee , KM Gura & M Puder (2007) Omega-3 fatty acids and liver disease. Hepatology 45, 841–845.
52.CJ Walkey , L Yu , LB Agellon (1998) Biochemical and evolutionary significance of phospholipid methylation. J Biol Chem 273, 27043–27046.
54.AA Noga , Y Zhao & DE Vance (2002) An unexpected requirement for phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the secretion of very low density lipoproteins. J Biol Chem 277, 42358–42365.
56.SH Zeisel & KA da Costa (2009) Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev 67, 615–623.
57.MF Abdelmalek , SO Sanderson , P Angulo (2009) Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology 50, 1818–1826.
58.X Ouyang , P Cirillo , Y Sautin (2008) Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 48, 993–999.
59.S Zelber-Sagi , D Nitzan-Kaluski , R Goldsmith (2007) Long term nutritional intake and the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a population based study. J Hepatol 47, 711–717.
60.KL Stanhope & PJ Havel (2008) Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1733S–1737S.
61.KL Teff , SS Elliott , M Tschop (2004) Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 2963–2972.
62.V Ratziu , P Giral , S Jacqueminet (2008) Rosiglitazone for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: one-year results of the randomized placebo-controlled Fatty Liver Improvement with Rosiglitazone Therapy (FLIRT) trial. Gastroenterology 135, 100–110.
63.GP Aithal , JA Thomas , PV Kaye (2008) Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in nondiabetic subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology 135, 1176–1184.
64.SA Harrison , W Fecht , EM Brunt (2009) Orlistat for overweight subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized, prospective trial. Hepatology 49, 80–86.
65.AJ Sanyal , N Chalasani , KV Kowdley (2010) Pioglitazone, Vitamin E, or Placebo for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med 362(18), 1675–1685.
66.RP Witek , WC Stone , FG Karaca (2009) Pan-caspase inhibitor VX-166 reduces fibrosis in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 50, 1421–1430.
67.QM Anstee , D Concas , H Kudo (2010) Impact of Pan-caspase inhibition in animal models of established steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Journal of Hepatology. (In the Press).
68.KG Alberti & PZ Zimmet (1998) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 15, 539–553.
69.Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (2001) Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285, 2486–2497.
71.KG Alberti , P Zimmet & J Shaw (2005) The metabolic syndrome – a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366, 1059–1062.
72.E Bugianesi , AJ McCullough & G Marchesini (2005) Insulin resistance: a metabolic pathway to chronic liver disease. Hepatology 42, 987–1000.