A Astrup , S Toubro , LT Dalgaard , SA Urhammer , TIA Sørensen & O Pedersen (1999) Impact of the v/v 55 polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene on 24-h energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23, 1030–1034.
O Boss , S Samec , F Kühne , P Bijlenga , F Assimacopoulos-Jeannet , J Seydoux , J-P Giacobino & P Muzzin (1998b) Uncoupling protein-3 expression in rodent skeletal muscle is modulated by Physical activity, energy expenditure, obesity 641 food intake but not by changes in environmental temperature. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273, 5–8.
O Boss , S Samec , A Paoloni-Giacobino , C Rossier , A Dulloo , J Seydoux , P Muzzin & J-P Giacobino (1997) Uncoupling protein-3: a new member of the mitochondrial carrier family with tissue-specific expression. FEBS Letters 408, 39–42.
C Bouchard , L Pérusse , YC Chagnon , G Warden & D Ricquier (1997) Linkage between markers in the vicinity of the uncoupling protein 2 gene and resting metabolic rate in humans. Human Molecular Genetics 6, 1887–1889.
B Buemann , B Schierning , S Toubro , B Bibby , T Sorensen , L Dalgaard , O Pedersen & A Astrup (2001) The association between the val/ala-55 polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene and exercise efficiency. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25, 467–471.
GW Cline , AJ Vidal-Puig , S Dufour , KS Cadman , BB Lowell & GI Shulman (2001) In vivo effects of uncoupling protein-3 gene disruption on mitochondrial energy metabolism. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 20240–20244.
NA Curtin , JC Clapham & CJ Barclay , (2002) Excess recovery heat production by isolated muscles from mice overexpressing uncoupling protein-3. Journal of Physiology 542, 231–235.
JR Davis , AR Tagliaferro , R Kertzer , T Gerardo , J Nichols & J Wheeler (1983) Variations in dietary-induced thermogenesis and body fatness with aerobic capacity. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 50, 319–329.
P de Lange , A Lanni , L Beneduce , M Moreno , A Lombardi , E Silvestri & F Goglia (2001) Uncoupling protein-3 is a molecular determinant for the regulation of resting metabolic rate by thyroid hormone. Endocrinology 142, 3414–3420.
C Fleury , M Neverova , S Collins , S Raimbault , O Champigny , C Levi-Meyrueis , F Bouillaud , MF Seldin , RS Surwit , D Ricquier & CH Warden (1997) Uncoupling protein-2: a novel gene linked to obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Nature Genetics 15, 269–273.
U Freyschuss & A Melcher (1978) Exercise energy expenditure in extreme obesity: influence of ergometry type and weight loss. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 38, 753–759.
RE Gimeno , M Dembski , X Weng , N Deng , AW Shyjan , CJ Gimeno , F Iris , SJ Ellis , EA Woolf & LA Tartaglia (1997) Cloning and characterization of an uncoupling protein homolog: a potential molecular mediator of human thermogenesis. Diabetes 46, 900–906.
C Gissane , DL Corrigan & JA White (1991) Gross efficiency responses to exercise conditioning in adult males of various ages. Journal of Sports Sciences 9, 383–391.
D-W Gong , Y He , M Karas & M Reitman (1997) Uncoupling protein-3 is a mediator of thermogenesis regulated by thyroid hormone, ß3-adrenergic agonists, and leptin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 24129–24132.
DW Gong , S Monemdjou , O Gavrilova , LR Leon , B Marcus-Samuels , CJ Chou , C Everett , LP Kozak , C Li , C Deng , ME Harper & ML Reitman (2000) Lack of obesity and normal response to fasting and thyroid hormone in mice lacking uncoupling protein-3. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 16251–16257.
JL Herring , PA Mole , CN Meredith & JS Stern (1992) Effect of suspending exercise training on resting metabolic rate in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24, 59–65.
N Hjeltnes , M Fernström , JR Zierath & A Krook (1999) Regulation of UCP2 and UCP3 by muscle disuse and physical activity in tetraplegic subjects. Diabetologia 42, 826–830.
M Klannemark , M Orho & L Groop (1998) No relationship between identified variants in the uncoupling protein 2 gene and energy expenditure. European Journal of Endocrinology 139, 217–223.
V Lebon , S Dufour , KF Petersen , J Ren , BM Jucker , LA Slezak , GW Cline , DL Rothman & GI Shulman (2001) Effect of triiodothyronine on mitochondrial energy coupling in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Clinical Investigation 108, 733–737.
K-U Lentes , N Tu , H Chen , U Winnikes , I Reinert , G Marmann & KM Pirke (1999) Genomic organization and mutational analysis of the human UCP2 gene, a prime candidate gene for human obesity. Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research 19, 229–244.
GA Meijer , KR Westerterp , GH Seyts , GM Janssen , WH Saris & F ten Hoor (1991) Body composition and sleeping metabolic rate in response to a 5-month endurance-training programme in adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 62, 18–21.
L Millet , H Vidal , F Andreelli , D Larrouy , J-P Riou , D Ricquier , M Laville & D Langin (1997) Increased uncoupling protein-2 and -3 mRNA expression during fasting in obese and lean humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100, 2665–2670.
P Mitchell (1966) Chemiosmotic coupling in oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 41, 445–502.
SB Pedersen , S Lund , ES Buhl & B Richelsen (2001) Insulin and contraction directly stimulate UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle in vitro. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 283, 19–25.
E Ravussin , S Lillioja , WC Knowler , L Christen , D Freymond , WGH Abbott , V Boyce , BV Howard & C Bogardus (1988) Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for bodyweight gain New England Journal of Medicine 318, 467–472.
A Russell , G Wadley , R Snow , JP Giacobino , P Muzzin , A Garnham & D Cameron-Smith (2002) Slow component of [V]O(2)kinetics: the effect of training status, fibre type, UCP3 mRNA and citrate synthase activity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 26, 157–164.
P Schrauwen , FJ Troost , J Xia , E Ravussin & WH Saris (1999a) Skeletal muscle UCP2 and UCP3 expression in trained and untrained male subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23, 966–972.
P Schrauwen , DP Van Aggel-Leijssen , G Hul , AJ Wagenmakers , H Vidal , WH Saris & MA Van Baak (2002 b) The effect of a 3-month low-intensity endurance training program on fat oxidation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 expression. Diabetes 51, 2220–2226.
P Schrauwen , MS Westerterp-Plantenga , E Kornips , G Schaart & WD van Marken Lichtenbelt (2002c) The effect of mild cold exposure on UCP3 mRNA expression and UCP3 protein content in humans. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 26, 450–457.
P Schrauwen , J Xia , C Bogardus , RE Pratley & E Ravussin (1999b) Skeletal muscle uncoupling protein 3 expression is a determinant of energy expenditure in Pima Indians. Diabetes 48, 146–149.
RA Simonyan , M Jimenez , RB Ceddia , JP Giacobino , P Muzzin & VP Skulachev (2001) Cold-induced changes in the energy coupling and the UCP3 level in rodent skeletal muscles. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1505, 271–279.
VP Skulachev (1998) Uncoupling: new approaches to an old problem of bioenergetics. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1363, 100–124.
N Tsuboyama-Kasaoka , N Tsunoda , K Maruyama , M Takahashi , H Kim , S Ikemoto & O Ezaki (1998) Up-regulation of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) mRNA by exercise training and down-regulation of UCP3 by denervation in skeletal muscles. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 247, 498–503.
A Vidal-Puig , M Rosenbaum , RC Considine , RL Leibel , GL Dohm & BB Lowell (1999) Effects of obesity and stable weight reduction on UCP2 and UCP3 gene expression in humans. Obesity Research 7, 133–140.
A Vidal-Puig , G Solanes , D Grujic , JS Flier & BB Lowell (1997) UCP3: An uncoupling protein homologue expressed preferentially and abundantly in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 235, 79–82.
AJ Vidal-Puig , D Grujic , CY Zhang , T Hagen , O Boss , Y Ido , A Szczepanik , J Wade , V Mootha , R Cortright , DM Muoio & BB Lowell (2000) Energy metabolism in uncoupling protein 3 gene knockout mice. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 16258–16266.
K Walder , RA Norman , RL Hanson , P Schrauwen , M Neverova , CP Jenkinson et al. (1998) Association between uncoupling protein polymorphisms (UCP2-UCP3) and energy metab olism/obesity in Pima indians. Human Molecular Genetics 7, 1431–1435.
KR Westerterp , GAL Meijer , P Schoffelen & E Janssen (1994) Body mass, body composition and sleeping metabolic rate before, during and after endurance training. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 69, 203–208.