Arthur, P, Kirkwood, B, Ross, D, Morris, S, Gyapong, J, Tomkins, A & Addy, H (1992) Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity in northern Ghana. Lancet 339, 361–362.
Bakshi, M & Gopaldas, T (1990) Impact of mega vitamin A dosing on the morbidity profile of under-privileged school boys (9–15 yrs). In National Symposium and XIII IVACG Meeting Report, Kathmandu, Nepal, p. 87. Washington, DC: IVACG.
Baqui, AH, de francisco, A, Arifeen, SE, Siddique, AK & Sack, RB (1994) Bulging fontanelle after supplementation with 25,000 IU vitamin A in infancy using EPI contacts. In Vitamin A Symposium, Programme and Abstracts, p. 7. Dhaka, Bangladesh: ICDDR.
Barclay, AJG, Foster, A & Sommer, A (1987) Vitamin A supplements and mortality related to measles: a randomised clinical trial. British Medical Journal 294, 294–296.
Barreto, ML, Santos, LMP, Assis, AMO, Araujo, MPN, Farenzena, GG, Santos, PA & Fianconne, RL (1994) Effect of vitamin A supplementation on diarrhoea and acute lower-respiratory-tract infections in young children in Brazil. Lancet 344, 228–231.
Baum, MK, Shor-Posner, G, Bonveni, P, Cassetti, I, Mantero-Atienza, E, Beach, R & Sauberlich, HE (1992) Influence of HIV infection on vitamin A status and requirements. Annals of the NewYork Academy of Sciences 669, 165–173.
Beach, RS, Mantero-Atienza, E, Shor-Posner, G, Javier, JJ, Szapocznik, J, Morgan, R, Sauberlich, HE, Comwell, PE, Eisdorfer, C & Baum, MK (1992) Specific nutrient abnormalities in asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. AIDS 6, 701–708.
Beaton, GH, Martorell, R, L'abbé, KA, Edmonston, B, Mccabe, G, Ross, AC & Harvey, B (1993) Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries. ACC/SCN State-of-the-art Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper no. 13. Geneva: ACC/SCN.
Benn, CS, Aaby, P, Bale, C, Olsen, J, Michaelson, KF, George, E & Whittle, H (1997) Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on the antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Lancet 350, 101–105.
Bbandari, N, Bhan, MK & Sazawal, S (1994). Impact of massive dose of vitamin A given to preschool children with acute diarrhoea on subsequent respiratory and diarrhoea1 morbidity. British Medical Journal 309, 1404–1407.
Binka, FN, Ross, DA, Morris, SS, Kirkwood, BR, Arthur, P, Dollimore, N, Gyapong, JO & Smith, PG (1995) Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 853–859.
Bloem, MW, Matzger, H & Huq, N (1995) Vitamin A deficiency among women in the reproductive years: an ignored problem. In Two Decades of Progress: Linking Knowledge to Action. Report of the XVI International Vitamin A Consultative Group Meeting, Chiang Rai, Thailand, p. 78. Washington, DC: IVACG.
Bogden, JD, Baker, H, Frank, O, Perez, G, Kemp, F, Bruening, K & Louria, D (1990) Micronutrient status and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587, 189–195.
Brilliant, LB, Pokhrel, RP, Grasset, NC, Lepkowski, JM, Kolstad, A, Hawks, W, Pararajasegaram, R, Brilliant, GE, Gilbert, S, Shrestha, SR & Kuo, J (1985) Epidemiology of blindness in Nepal. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 63, 375–386.
Calle, PF, Miguel, MJG, Codoceo, R, Gomez, A, Mellado, MJ, Fontelo, PM & de jose, MI (1991) Status of vitamin A and its carrier in pediatric population infected with HIV. VIIth International Conference on AIDS, 2508 Abstr.
Collins, SJ (1988) Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of retro-virus-infected HL-60 cells is associated with enhanced transcription from the viral long terminal repeat. Journal of Virology 62, 4349–4352.
Coutsoudis, A, Broughton, M & Coovadia, HM (1991) Vitamin A supplementation reduces measles morbidity in young African children: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 890–895.
Daulaire, NMP, Starbuck, ES, Houston, RM, Church, MS, Stukel, TA & Pandey, MR (1992) Childhood mortality after a high dose of vitamin A in a high risk population. British Medical Journal 304, 207–210.
de Francisco, A, Chakraborty, J, Chowdhury, HR, Yunus, M, Baqui, AH, Siddique, A & Sack, RB (1993) Acutetoxicity of vitamin A given with vaccines in infancy. Lancet 342, 526–527.
de Francisco, A, Yasui, Y & Chakraborty, J (1994) Vitamin A given to mothers after delivery reduces infant mortality and increases symptoms of morbidity. In Two Decades of Progress: Linking Knowledge to Action. Report of the XVI International Vitamin A Consultative Group Meeting, Chiang Rai, Thailand, p. 69. Washington, DC: IVAGC.
de Pee, S, West, CE, Muhilal, , Karyadi, D & Hautvast, JGAJ (1995) Lack of improvement in vitamin A status with increasedconsumption of dark-green leafy vegetables. Lancet 346, 75–81.
Dixit, DT (1966) Night-blindness in the third trimester of pregnancy. Indian Journal of Medical Research 54, 791–795.
Ghana VAST Study Team (1993) Vitamin A supplementation in northern Ghana: effects on clinic attendances, hospital admissions, and child mortality. Lancet 342, 7–12.
Gopaldas, T (1992) Vitamin A deficiency beyond the preschool years. In Bellagio Meeting on Vitamin A Dejiciency and Childhood Mo rtality, p. 56[West, KP Jr, editor]. New York: Helen Keller International.
Hathcock, JN, Hattan, DG, Jenkins, MY, McDonald, JT, Sundaresan, P & Wilkenin, VL (1990) Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 183–202.
Hennig, A, Foster, A, Shrestha, SP & Pokhrel, RP (1991) Vitamin A deficiency and corneal ulceration in south-east Nepal: implications for preventing blindness in children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 69, 235–239.
Henning, B, Stewart, K, Zaman, K, Alam, AN, Brown, K & Black, RE (1992) Lack of therapeutic efficacy of vitamin Afor non-cholera, watery diarrhoea in Bangladeshi children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 437–443.
Herrera, MG, Nestel, P, El Amin, A, Fawzi, WW, Mohamed, K & Weld, L (1992) Vitamin A supplementation and child survival. Lancet 340, 267–271.
Hofman, C & Eichele, G (1994) Retinoids in development. In The Retinoids: Biology, Chemistry and Medicine, 2nd ed., pp. 387–441 [Sporn, MB, Roberts, AB and Goodman, DS, editors]. New York: Raven Press.
Humphrey, JH, Agoestina, T, Wu, L, Usman, A, Nurachim, M, Subardja, D, Hidyat, S, Tielsch, J, West, KP Jr & Sommer, A (1996) Impact of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on infant morbidity and mortality. Journal of Pediatrics 128, 489–496.
Hussey, GD & Klein, M (1990) A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 160–164.
International Vitamin A Consultative Group (1986) The Safe Useof Vitamin A by Women During the Reproductive Years. Washington, DC: IVACG.
Katz, J, Khatry, SK, West, KP, Humphrey, JH, Leclerq, SC, Pradhan, EK, Pohkrel, RP & Sommer, A (1995) Night blindness is prevalent during pregnancy and lactation in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2122–2127.
Khan, MU, Haque, E & Khan, MR (1984) Nutritional ocular diseases and their association with diarrhoea in Matlab, Bangladesh. British Journal of Nutrition 52, 1–9.
Kitano, K, Baldwin, GC, Raines, MA & Golde, DW (1990) Differentiating agents facilitate infection of myeloid leukemia cell lines by monocytotropic HIV-1 strains. Blood 76, 1980–1988.
Kjolhede, CL, Chew, FJ, Gadomski, AM & Marroquin, DP (1995) Clinical trial of vitamin A as adjuvant treatment for lower respiratory tract infections. Journal of Pediatrics 126, 807–812.
Levin, HM, Pollitt, E, Galloway, R & Mcguire, J (1993) Micronutrient deficiency disorders. In Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, pp. 421–454 [Jamison, DT, Mosley, WH, Measham, AR and Bobadilla, JL, editors]. New York:Oxford University Press & World Bank.
Maio, JJ & Brown, FL (1988) Regulation of expression driven by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 long terminal repeats in pluripotential human embryonic cells. Journal of Virology 62, 1398–1407.
Mandal, GS, Nanda, KN & Bose, J (1969) Night blindness in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India 19, 453–458.
Muhilal, , Permeisih, D, Idjradinata, YR, Muherdiyantiningsih, & Karyadi, D (1988) Vitamin A fortified monosodium glutamate and health, growth, and survival of children: a controlled field trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 1271–1276.
Olson, JA (1972) The biological role of vitamin A in maintaining epithelial tissues. Israel Journal of Medical Science 8, 1170–1178.
Olson, JA (1996)Biochemistry of vitamin A and carotenoids. In Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, Survival, and Vision, pp. 221–250 [Sommer, A and West, KP Jr, editors]. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pant, I & Gopaldas, T (1987) Effect of mega doses of vitamin A on the vitamin A status of underprivileged school-age boys (7–15 yr). Indian Journal of Medical Research 86, 196–206.
Pelletier, DL (1994) The relationship between child anthropometry and mortality in developing countries: implications for policy, programs and future research. Journal of Nutrition 124, Suppl., S2047–S2081.
Poli, G & Fauci, AS (1992) The effect of cytokmes and pharmacologic agents on chronic HIV infection. AIDS Research on Human Retroviruses 8, 191–197.
Poli, G, Kinte, AL, Justement, JS, Bressler, P, Kehrl, J & Fauci, AS (1992) Retinoic acid mimics transforming growth factor β in the regulation of human immunodeficiency virus expression in monocytic cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 89, 2689–2693.
Rahmathullah, L, Underwood, BA, Thulasiraj, RD, Milton, RC, Ramaswamy, K, Rahmathullah, R & Babu, G (1990) Reduced mortality among children in Southern India receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 929–935.
Rodriguez-Amaya, DB (1997) Carotenoids and Food Preparation: the Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Prepared, Processed, and Stored Foods. Washington, DC: OMNI Project.
Rosales, FJ, Kjolhede, C & Goodman, S (1996) Efficacy of a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of oil-soluble vitamin A in measles-associated morbidity. American Journal of Epidemiology 143, 413–422.
Ross, DA (1995) Vitamin A plus measles vaccination: the downside ofconvenience? Lancet 345, 1317–1318.
Sazawal, S, Black, RE, Bhan, MK, Jalla, S, Bhandari, N, Sinha, A & Mahjumdar, S (1996) Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery among low socioeconomic children in India. Journal of Nutrition 126, 443–450.
Semba, RD, Graham, NMH, Caiaffa, WT, Margolick, JB, Clement, L & Vlahov, D (1993) Increased mortality associated with vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Archives of Internal Medicine 153, 2149–2154.
Semba, RD, Miotti, PG, Chiphangwi, JD, Saah, AJ, Canner, JK, Dallabetta, GA & Hoover, DR (1994) Maternalvitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 343, 1593–1597.
Semba, RD, Munasir, Z, Beeler, J, Akib, A, Muhilal, , Audet, S & Sommer, A (1995) Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination. Lancet 345, 1330–1332.
Solon, FS, Popkin, BM, Fernandez, TL & Latham, MC (1978) Vitamin A deficiency in the Philippines: a study of xerophthalmia in Cebu. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, 360–368.
Sommer, A (1982) Nutritional Blindness: Xerophthalmia and Keratomalacia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sommer, A, Tarwotjo, I, Djunaedi, E, West, KP Jr, Loeden, AA, Tilden, R, Mele, L & the Aceh Study Group (1986) Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality: a randomised controlled community trial. Lancet i, 1169–1173.
Sommer, A &West, KP Jr (editors) (1996) In Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, Survival, and Vision. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stoltzfus, RJ, Hakimi, M, Miller, KW, Rasmussen, KM, Dawiesah, S, Habicht, J-P & Dibley, MJ (1993) High dose vitamin A supplementation of breast-feeding Indonesian mothers: effects on the vitaminA status of mother and infant. Journal of Nutrition 123, 666–675.
Tang, AM, Graham, NMH, Kirby, AJ, McCall, LD, Willett, WC & Saah, AJ (1993) Dietary micronutrient intake and risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human immunodeficiency virus type1 (HIV-1)-infected homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology 138, 937–951.
Tang, AM, Graham, NMH, Semba, RD & Saah, AJ (1997) Association betwen serum vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 11, 613–620.
Turpin, JA, Vargo, M & Meltzer, MS (1992) Enhanced HIV-1 replication in retinoid-treated monocytes. Retinoid effects mediated through mechanisms related to cell differentiation and to direct transcriptional action on viral geneexpression. Journal of Immunology 148, 2539–2546.
Upadhyay, MP, Gurung, BJ, Pillai, KK & Nepal, BP (1985) Xerophthalmia among Nepalese children. American Journal of Epidemiology 121, 71–77.
Vijayaraghavan, K, Radhaiah, G, Prakasam, BS, Sarma, KV & Reddy, KVR (1990) Effect of massive dose vitamin A on morbidityand mortality in Indian children. Lancet 336, 1342–1345.
Vitamin A and Pneumonia Working Group (1995) Potential interventions for the prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing countries: a meta-analysis of data from field trials to assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on pneumonia morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 73, 609–619.
Ward, BJ, Humphrey, JH, Clement, L & Chaisson, RE (1993) Vitamin A status in HIV infection. Nutrition Research 13, 157–166.
Ward, BJ & Semba, RD (1994) Vitamin A and HIV infection. In Nutrition and AIDS, pp. 141–166 [Watson, RR, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
West, KP Jr, Katz, J, Shrestha, SR, LeClerq, SC, Khatry, SK, Pradhan, EK, Adhikari, R, Wu, LS-F, Pokhrel, RP & Sommer, A (1995) Mortality of infants < 6 mo of age supplemented with vitamin A: a randomized, double-masked trial in Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 143–148.
West, KP Jr, Khatry, SK, LeClerq, SC, Adhikari, R, See, L, Katz, J, Shrestha, SR, Pradhan, EK, Pokhrel, RP & Sommer, A (1992) Tolerance of young infants to a single, large dose of vitamin A: a randomized, community trial in Nepal. Bulletin ofthe World Health Organization 70, 733–739.
West, KP, Pokhrel, RP, Katz, J, Le Clerq, SC, Khatry, SK, Shrestha, SR, Pradhan, EK, Tielsch, JM, Pandey, MR & Sommer, A (1991) Efficacy of vitamin A in reducing preschool child mortality in Nepal. Lancet 338, 67–71.
World Bank (1993) Investing in Health: The 1993 World Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press & World Bank.
Yamamoto, N, Harada, S & Nakashima, H (1986) Substances affecting the infection and replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS Research 2, Suppl. 1, S183–S189.