Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-zdfhw Total loading time: 0.385 Render date: 2022-08-11T04:13:57.987Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Furness’s First Farmers: Evidence of Early Neolithic Settlement and Dairying in Cumbria

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 May 2020

Gav Robinson
Affiliation:
Northern Archaeological Associates, Harmire Enterprise Park, Barnard Castle, County Durham DL12 8BN, UK Email: gr@naaheritage.com, mt@naaheritage.com
Matthew Town
Affiliation:
Northern Archaeological Associates, Harmire Enterprise Park, Barnard Castle, County Durham DL12 8BN, UK Email: gr@naaheritage.com, mt@naaheritage.com
Torben Bjarke Ballin
Affiliation:
Banknock Cottage, Denny, StirlingshireFK6 5NA, UK
Ann Clarke
Affiliation:
Email: amclarke@btconnect.com
Julie Dunne
Affiliation:
Organic Geochemistry Unit, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, BristolBS8 1TS, UK
Richard P. Evershed
Affiliation:
Organic Geochemistry Unit, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, BristolBS8 1TS, UK
Lynne F Gardiner
Affiliation:
Wardell Armstrong, Marconi Road, Burgh Road Industrial Estate, Carlisle, Cumbria, CA2 7NA
Alex Gibson
Affiliation:
15 Alexandra Crescent, Ilkley, West Yorkshire, LS29 9ER
Hannah Russ
Affiliation:
Website: www.archaeology.biz

Abstract

In 2015, excavations at Stainton Quarry, Furness, Cumbria, recovered remains that provide a unique insight into Early Neolithic farming in the vicinity. Five pits, a post-hole, and deposits within a tree-throw and three crevices in a limestone outcrop were investigated. The latter deposits yielded potentially the largest assemblage of Carinated Bowl fragments yet recovered in Cumbria. Lipid analysis identified dairy fats within nine of these sherds. This was consistent with previous larger studies but represents the first evidence that dairying was an important component of Early Neolithic subsistence strategies in Cumbria. In addition, two deliberately broken polished stone axes, an Arran pitchstone core, a small number of flint tools and debitage, and a tuff flake were retrieved. The site also produced moderate amounts of charred grain, hazelnut shell, charcoal, and burnt bone. Most of the charred grain came from an Early Neolithic pit and potentially comprises the largest assemblage of such material recovered from Cumbria to date. Radiocarbon dating indicated activity sometime during the 40th–35th centuries cal bc as well as an earlier presence during the 46th–45th centuries. Later activity during the Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age was also demonstrated. The dense concentration of material and the fragmentary and abraded nature of the pottery suggested redeposition from an above-ground midden. Furthermore, the data recovered during the investigation has wider implications regarding the nature and use of the surrounding landscape during the Early Neolithic and suggests higher levels of settlement permanence, greater reliance on domesticated resources, and a possible different topographical focus for settlement than currently proposed.

Résumé

RÉSUMÉ

Les premiers agriculteurs de Furness: Témoignages d’une occupation du début du Néolithique et de laiterie en Cumbria, de Gav Robinson et Matthew Town

En 2015, des fouilles à la carrière de Stainton, Furness, Cumbria ont recouvré des vestiges qui apportent un unique aperçu de l’agriculture du début du Néolithique dans les environs. Cinq fosses, un trou de poteau et des dépôts à l’intérieur d’un trou laissé par les racines d’un arbre, et trois crevasses dans un affleurement de calcaire ont été investigués. Les derniers dépôts ont potentiellement livré le plus important assemblage de fragments de bols carinés recouvrés à ce jour en Cumbria. Une analyse des lipides a identifié des matières grasses de lait à l’intérieur de neuf de ces tessons. Ceci était conforme avec de précédentes, plus grandes, études mais représente le premier témoignage que la production laitière constituait un composant important des stratégies de subsistance du début du Néolithique en Cumbria. S’ajoutait à cela deux haches, en pierre polie délibérément cassées, un noyau de pierre d’.Arran, un petit nombre d’outils en silex et du débitage et un éclat de tuffeau.furent récupérés. Le site a aussi produit des quantités modérées de graines calcinées, de coquilles de noisettes, charbon de bois et os calcinés. La plus grande partie des graines provenait d’une fosse du début du Néolithique et comprenait potentiellement le plus grand assemblage de tels matériaux jamais recouvré à ce jouren Cumbria. Des datations au C14 indiquaient une activité à un moment donné pendant le 40 ièmes–35ièmes siècles cal av.J.-C. ainsi qu’une présence antérieure pendant les 46ièmes–45ièmes siècles Des activités ultérieures, pendant le Chalcolithique et le début de l’Age du Bronze ont également été mises en évidence La dense concentration de matériel et la nature fragmentaire et abrasée de la poterie suggère une redéposition d’un tas d’ordures en surface En plus, les données recouvrées pendant l’investigation ont des implications plus étendues en ce qui concerne la nature et l’utilisation du paysage environnant au cours du début du Néolithique et indique des degrés plus élevés de permanence d’occupation,une plus grande fiabilité sur les ressources domestiquées et eut-êre un éventuel nouveau centre topographique pour l’occupation que celui proposé actuellement

Zusammenfassung

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Die ersten Bauern von Furness: Belege für Besiedlung und Milchwirtschaft im Frühneolithikum in Cumbria, von Gav Robinson und Matthew Town

Durch Ausgrabungen in der Stainton Quarry, Furness, Cumbria, wurden im Jahr 2015 Befunde freigelegt, die einen einzigartigen Einblick in den frühneolithischen Ackerbau der Region erlauben. Fünf Gruben, ein Pfostenloch sowie Fundansammlungen in einem Baumwurf und in drei Felsspalten in einem Kalkfelsen wurden untersucht. Diese Funde liefern das möglicherweise größte Ensemble von Carinated Bowl-Fragmenten, das je in Cumbria gefunden wurde. Durch Analysen von Lipiden wurden in neun dieser Scherben Milchfette festgestellt. Dies steht in Einklang mit vorherigen umfassenderen Untersuchungen, bildet aber den ersten Nachweis, dass die Milchwirtschaft ein wichtiger Bestandteil der Subsistenzstrategien im Frühneolithikum in Cumbria war. Außerdem wurden zwei absichtlich zerbrochene polierte Steinäxte, ein Pechsteinkern von Arran, eine kleine Zahl an Feuersteinwerkzeugen und -abfällen und ein Abschlag aus Tuff geborgen. Vom Fundplatz stammen auch geringe Mengen verkohlter Getreidekörner, Haselnussschalen, Holzkohle und verbrannter Knochen. Die meisten verkohlten Getreidekörner kamen aus einer frühneolithischen Grube und stellen möglicherweise die größte Menge dieses Fundmaterials dar, das bisher in Cumbria gefunden wurde. Radiokarbondaten zeigen Aktivitäten etwa während des 40. Bis 35. Jahrhunderts cal bc an, aber auch eine frühere Präsenz während des 46.–45. Jahrhunderts. Spätere Aktivitäten im Chalkolithikum und der Frühbronzezeit sind ebenfalls belegt. Die dichte Konzentration an Material und der fragmentarische und verwitterte Zustand der Keramik legen nahe, dass eine Verlagerung von einem oberirdischen Abfallhaufen stattfand. Die durch die Untersuchungen vorliegenden Daten haben eine weitergehende Bedeutung für den Charakter und die Nutzung der umgebenden Landschaft im Frühneolithikum und deuten darauf hin, dass es eine höhere Permanenz der Besiedlung, eine größere Nutzung domestischer Ressourcen und einen möglicherweise anderen topographischen Schwerpunkt der Besiedlung gab als bislang angenommen.

Resumen

RESUMEN

Los primeros campesinos de Furness: evidencia de asentamiento y productos lácteos en Cumbria, por Gav Robinson y Matthew Town

En 2015, las excavaciones en la cantera de Stainton, Furness, Cumbria, proporcionaron restos que ofrecen una visión única sobre las actividades agrícolas del Neolítico inicial en la zona. Se documentaron cinco hoyos, un agujero de poste, un depósito dentro de la concavidad creada por la raíz de un árbol y tres grietas en un afloramiento de caliza. Estos últimos depósitos proporcionaron el mayor conjunto de fragmentos de cerámica carenada documentado en Cumbria. El análisis de lípidos ha permitido identificar la presencia de grasas relacionadas con los productos lácteos en nueve de estos fragmentos. Esto es consistente con lo propuesto en estudios anteriores más amplios, pero representa la primera evidencia de que los productos lácteos fueron un componente importante de las estrategias de subsistencia del Neolítico antiguo en Cumbria. A ello, se debe añadir la presencia de dos hachas pulimentadas deliberadamente rotas, un núcleo de resinita de Arran, un pequeño número de útiles líticos y de restos de talla y una lámina de toba. El yacimiento también ha permitido documentar cantidades moderadas de grano carbonizado, cáscaras de avellana, carbón y hueso quemado. La mayor parte de los granos carbonizados proceden de un silo del Neolítico antiguo y potencialmente constituye el conjunto más abundante de este tipo de material documentado en Cumbria hasta la fecha. Las dataciones radiocarbónicas indican un momento de intensa ocupación entre los siglos 40 y 35 cal bc al igual que una presencia más antigua entre los siglos 46 y 47. Las últimas actividades llevadas a cabo en el yacimiento se pueden situar en el Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce. La densa concentración de material y el carácter fragmentario y erosionado de la cerámica sugiere una redeposición de una concentración inicial más elevada. Además, los datos recuperados durante la investigación tienen amplias implicaciones en relación con la naturaleza y uso de los paisajes circundantes durante el Neolítico antiguo y sugieren una alta permanencia en la ocupación, una gran dependencia de los recursos domésticos y la posibilidad de un lugar topográficamente diferente para el asentamiento del que se ha propuesto actualmente.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Prehistoric Society, 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Appley, C.J. 2012. The Prehistoric Environment of Furness, Palaeoenvironmental influences upon human activity during the Neolithic and Bronze Age of the Furness Peninsula, South Cumbria, UK. Unpublished PhD thesis, Sheffield UniversityGoogle Scholar
Armit, I., Murphy, E., Nelis, E. & Simpson, D. (eds) 2003a. Neolithic Settlement in Ireland and Western Britain. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Armit, I., Murphy, E., Nelis, E. & Simpson, D. 2003b. Introduction. In Armit et al. (eds) 2003a, 12 Google Scholar
Bailey, G. & Spikins, P. (eds) 2008. Mesolithic Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Google Scholar
Ballin, T.B. 2008. The distribution of Arran pitchstone – territories, exchange and the ‘English Problem’. PAST 60, 10–13Google Scholar
Ballin, T.B. 2009. Archaeological Pitchstone in Northern Britain: Characterization and interpretation of an important prehistoric source. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 476 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ballin, T.B. & Faithfull, J. 2009. Gazetteer of Arran pitchstone sources. Presentation of exposed pitchstone dykes and sills across the Isle of Arran, and discussion of the possible archaeological relevance of these outcrops. Scottish Archaeological Internet Reports (SAIR) 38. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDS/archiveDownload?t=arch-310-1/dissemination/pdf/sair38.pdf (Accessed on 13.12.16)10.9750/issn.1773-3803.2009.38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barclay, G.J. 2003. Neolithic settlement in the lowlands of Scotland: a preliminary survey. In Armit et al. (eds) 2003a, 7183 Google Scholar
Barnett, J. & Edmonds, M. 2002. Places apart? Caves and monuments in Neolithic and earlier Bronze Age Britain. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 12(1), 133–29Google Scholar
Barnes, F. 1955. Pottery from prehistoric sites, North End, Walney. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 55(2), 116 Google Scholar
Bayliss, A. 2009. Rolling out revolution: using radiocarbon dating in archaeology. Radiocarbon 51(1), 123–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayliss, A. 2015. Quality in Bayesian chronological models in archaeology. World Archaeology, 47(4), 677700 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayliss, A., Plicht, J. van der, Bronk Ramsey, C., McCormac, G., Healy, F. & Whittle, A. 2011. Towards generational time-scales: the quantitative interpretation of archaeological chronologies. In Whittle et al. 2011, 1759 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becket, A. & MacGregor, G. 2009. Forest grazing and seaweed foddering: Early Neolithic occupation at Maybole, South Ayrshire. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 139, 105–22Google Scholar
Becket, A. & MacGregor, G. 2012. Big pit, little pit, big pit, little pit …: pit practices in Western Scotland in the 4th millennium. In Anderson-Whymark, H. & Thomas, J. (eds), Regional Perspectives on Neolithic Pit Deposition: Beyond the mundane, 5162. Oxford: Neolithic Studies Group Seminar Papers 12 Google Scholar
Berstan, R., Stott, A.W., Minnitt, S., Ramsey, C.B., Hedges, R.E.M. & Evershed, R.P. 2008. Direct dating of pottery from its organic residues: new precision using compound-specific carbon isotopes. Antiquity 82(317), 702–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beswick, P. & Coombs, D. 1986. Excavations at Portfield Hillfort, 1960, 1970, and 1972. In Manby, T.G. & Turnbull, P. (eds), Archaeology in the Pennines. Studies in Honour of Arthur Raistrick, 137–80. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 158 Google Scholar
Bishop, R.R., Church, M.J. & Rowley-Conwy, P.A. 2009. Cereals, fruits and nuts in the Scottish Neolithic. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 139, 47103 Google Scholar
Bradley, R. & Edmonds, M. 1993. Interpreting the Axe Trade: Production and exchange in Neolithic Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Google Scholar
Bradley, R., Rogers, A., Sturt, F. & Watson, A. 2016. Maritime havens in earlier prehistoric Britain. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 82, 125–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, C. 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: The OxCal program. Radiocarbon 37(2), 425–3010.1017/S0033822200030903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1), 337–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brück, J. 1999. Ritual and rationality: Some problems of interpretation in European Archaeology. European Journal of Archaeology 2, 313–44Google Scholar
Campbell, G., Moffett, L. & Straker, V. 2011. Environmental Archaeology. A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Methods, from Sampling and Recovery to Post-Excavation (2nd edn). Portsmouth: English Heritage Google Scholar
Cherry, P. 2007. Studies in Northern Prehistory: Essays in Memory of Clare Fell. Kendal: Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Extra Series 33 Google Scholar
Cooney, G. 2003. Rooted or routed? Landscapes of Neolithic settlement in Ireland. In Armit et al. (eds) 2003a, 4755 Google Scholar
Copley, M.S., Berstan, R., Dudd, S.N., Docherty, G., Mukherjee, A.J., Straker, V., Payne, S. & Evershed, R.P. 2003. Direct chemical evidence for widespread dairying in Prehistoric Britain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(4), 1524–9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Copley, M.S., Berstan, R., Dudd, S.N., Aillaud, S., Mukherjee, A.J., Straker, V., Payne, S. & Evershed, R.P. 2005a. Processing of milk products in pottery vessels through British prehistory. Antiquity 79(306), 895908 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copley, M.S., Berstan, R., Mukherjee, A.J., Dudd, S.N., Straker, V., Payne, S. & Evershed, R.P. 2005b. Dairying in antiquity. III. Evidence from absorbed lipid residues dating to the British Neolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science 32(4), 523–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copley, M.S., Bland, H.A., Rose, P., Horton, M. & Evershed, R.P. 2005c. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt. Analyst 130(6), 860–7110.1039/b500403aCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Correa-Ascencio, M. & Evershed, R.P. 2014. High throughput screening of organic residues in archaeological potsherds using direct acidified methanol extraction. Analytical Methods 6(5), 1330–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cramp, L. 2014. Investigation of absorbed residues from pottery. In Murray & Murray 2014, 50–3Google Scholar
Cramp, L.J.E., Jones, J., Sheridan, A., Smyth, J., Whelton, H., Mulville, J., Sharples, N. & Evershed, R.P. 2014. Immediate replacement of fishing with dairying by the earliest farmers of the northeast Atlantic archipelagos. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 281: 20132372 http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2372 (Accessed on 23.2.17)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cross, M. 1938. Prehistoric settlement on Walney. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 38(2), 160–3Google Scholar
Cross, M 1939. A prehistoric settlement on Walney Island, Part II. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 39(2), 262–83Google Scholar
Cross, M 1942. A prehistoric settlement on Walney Island, Part III. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 42(2), 112–21Google Scholar
Cross, M 1946. A prehistoric settlement on Walney Island, Part IV. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 46(2), 6776 Google Scholar
Cross, M 1947. A prehistoric settlement on Walney Island, Part V. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 47(2), 6877 Google Scholar
Cross, M 1949. A prehistoric settlement on Walney Island, Part VI. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 49(2), 19 Google Scholar
Cross, M 1950. A prehistoric settlement on Walney Island, Part VII. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 50(2), 15–9Google Scholar
Cummings, V. 2017. The Neolithic of Britain and Ireland. London: Routledge Archaeology of Northern Europe CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darvill, T. 1996. Neolithic buildings in England, Wales and the Isle of Man. In Darvill & Thomas (eds) 1996, 77112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darvill, T. 2003. Billown and the Neolithic of the Isle of Man. In Armit et al. (eds) 2003a, 112–9Google Scholar
Darvill, T. & Thomas, J. (eds). 1996. Neolithic Houses in Northwest Europe and Beyond. Oxford: Neolithic Studies Group Seminar Papers 1 Google Scholar
Dobson, J. 1912. Report on an ancient settlement at Stone Close, near Stainton-in-Furness. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 12(2), 277–84Google Scholar
Dudd, S.N. & Evershed, R.P. 1998. Direct demonstration of milk as an element of archaeological economies. Science 282(5393), 1478–81CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dudd, S.N. & Evershed, R.P. 2007. The organic residues. In Garner 2007, 26 Google Scholar
Dunne, J., Evershed, R.P., Salque, M., Cramp, L., Bruni, S., Ryan, K., Biagetti, S. & di Lernia, S. 2012. First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium bc . Nature 486(7403), 390–4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edmonds, M. & Evans, H. 2007. Made and found: Cairns and natural mounds on Sizergh Fell. In Cherry 2007, 115–40Google Scholar
English Heritage 2008. MoRPHE Project Planning Note 3 Archaeological Excavations. London: English Heritage Google Scholar
English Heritage 2014. Stonehenge Neolithic Houses: An English Heritage experimental archaeology project to recreate houses from 2500 bc . https://neolithichouses.wordpress.com/ (Accessed on 3.3.17)Google Scholar
Evans, H. 2008. Neolithic and Bronze Age Landscapes of Cumbria. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, H. 2018. An early Neolithic occupation site at Holbeck Park Avenue, Barrow-in-Furness. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 18(3), 122 Google Scholar
Evans, H. & Coward, D. 2004. A prehistoric occupation site at Sandscale Haws, Barrow in Furness. Archaeology North 22, 16–8Google Scholar
Evershed, R.P. 2008. Experimental approaches to the interpretation of absorbed organic residues in archaeological ceramics. World Archaeology 40(1), 2647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evershed, R.P., Mottram, H.R., Dudd, S.N., Charters, S., Stott, A.W., Lawrence, G.J., Gibson, A.M., Conner, A., Blinkhorn, P.W. & Reeves, V. 1997. New criteria for the identification of animal fats preserved in archaeological pottery. Naturwissenschaften 84(9), 402–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finlayson, B. & Warren, G. (eds). 2010. Landscapes in Transition. Oxford: Council for British Research in the Levant Supplementary Series 8 Google Scholar
Garner, D. 2007. The Neolithic and Bronze Age Settlement at Oversley Farm, Styal, Cheshire. Excavations in advance of Manchester Airport’s Runway 2, 1997–8. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 435/Gifford Archaeological Monograph 1 Google Scholar
Garrow, D. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garrow, D. 2007. Placing pits: Landscape occupation and depositional practice during the Neolithic in East Anglia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 73, 124 10.1017/S0079497X00000037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, A. 2003. What do we mean by Neolithic settlement? Some approaches, 10 years on. In Armit et al. (eds) 2003a, 136–45Google Scholar
Gibson, A.M. 2015. Assessment of the Pottery from Scorton N. Yorks and Low Plains, Cumbria. Ilkley: Alex Gibson: Unpublished typescript report 125Google Scholar
Archaeology, Greenlane 2012. ‘Furness Hoard’ Find Spot, Cumbria: Archaeological excavation. Ulverstone: Greenlane Archaeology, unpublished typescript reportGoogle Scholar
Greenlane Archaeology 2015. ‘Dunes of Barrow’ – Walney North End, Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria: Archaeological Evaluation. Ulverstone: Greenlane Archaeology, unpublished typescript reportGoogle Scholar
Gregg, M. W., Banning, E. B., Gibbs, K. & Slater, G. F. 2009. Subsistence practices and pottery use in Neolithic Jordan: Molecular and isotopic evidence. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(4), 937–4610.1016/j.jas.2008.09.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grigson, C. 1984. Porridge and pannage: pig husbandry in Neolithic England. In Bell, M. & Limbrey, S. (eds), Archaeological Aspects of Woodland Ecology. 297314. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S1650/Symposia of the Association for Environmental Archaeology 2 Google Scholar
Grogan, E. 1996. Neolithic Houses in Ireland. In Darvill & Thomas (eds) 1996, 4160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grosvenor, M. J. 2014. Human-environment interactions during the Mid-Holocene in Cumbria. https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/handle/10871/16136 (Accessed on 2.10.19)Google Scholar
Hall, A. R. & Huntley, J.P. 2007. A Review of the Evidence for Macrofossil Plant Remains from Archaeological Deposits in Northern England. Portsmouth: English Heritage Research Department Report Series 87/2007 Google Scholar
Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A., Vanhatalo, A., Toivonen, V., Heikkilä, T., Lee, M. & Shingfield, K. 2013. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on ruminal lipid metabolism in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60: 40 forage-to-concentrate ratio. Journal of Dairy Science 96(9), 58825900 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A., Vanhatalo, A., Toivonen, V., Heikkilä, T., Lee, M. & Shingfield, K. 2014. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60: 40 forage-to-concentrate ratio. Journal of Dairy Science 97(6), 3761–76CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harding, J. 2006. Pit-digging, occupation and structured deposition on Rudston Wold, eastern Yorkshire. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 25(2), 109–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Historic Environment Scotland (HES) 2017. Canmore: The online catalogue to Scotland’s archaeology, buildings, industrial and maritime heritage. https://canmore.org.uk/ (Accessed on 28.2.17)Google Scholar
Hodgkinson, D., Huckerby, E., Middleton, R. & Wells, C.E. 2000. The Lowland Wetlands of Cumbria. Lancaster: Lancaster Imprints 8/North West Wetlands Survey 6 Google Scholar
Hodgson, J. & Brennand, M. 2006. The Prehistoric period resource assessment. In Brennand, M. (ed.), The Archaeology of North West England: Research and Archaeology in North West England: An Archaeological Research Framework for North West England Volume 1, Resource Assessment. 2358. Bolton: Council of British Archaeology North West/Archaeology North West 8(18)Google Scholar
Hodgson, J. & Brennand, M. 2007. The Prehistoric Period Research Agenda. In Brennand, M. (ed.), The Archaeology of North West England: Research and Archaeology in North West England: An Archaeological Research Framework for North West England Volume 2, Research Agenda and Strategy, 3154. Council of British Archaeology North West/Archaeology North West 9(17)Google Scholar
Jarvis, R.A., Bendelow, V.C., Bradley, R.I., Carroll, D.M., Furness, R.R., Kilgour, I.N.L. & King, S.J. 1984. Soils and their Use in Northern England. Harpenden: Soil Survey of England and Wales Bulletin 10 Google Scholar
Jones, E. 2001. Results of an archaeological evaluation at Roose Quarry, Barrow in Furness, Cumbria. Where?: Headland Archaeology, unpublished typescript report Google Scholar
Jones, G. & Rowley-Conwy, P. 2007. On the importance of cereal cultivation in the British Neolithic. In Colledge, S. & Conolly, J. (eds), The Origins and Spread of Domestic Plants in Southwest Asia and Europe, 391419. Walnut Creek CA: Left Coast Press/University College London Institute of Archaeology Publications Google Scholar
Lancaster University Archaeological Unit (LUAU) 1992. Billown Quarry, Malew, Isle of Man. Archaeological work and investigations. Leicester: LUAU, unpublished typescript reportGoogle Scholar
Manby, T.G. 1965. The distribution of rough-out, ‘Cumbrian’ and related stone axes of Lake District origin in northern England. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society (2) 65, 201–4Google Scholar
Manby, T.G. 2007. Ehenside Tarn and the Neolithic pottery of north-western England. In Cherry 2007, 6198 Google Scholar
Manby, T.G., King, A. & Vyner, B.E. 2003. The Neolithic and Bronze Ages: a time of early agriculture. In Manby, T.G., Moorhouse, S. & Ottaway, P. (eds), The Archaeology of Yorkshire: An assessment at the beginning of the 21st Century, 35113. Leeds: Yorkshire Archaeological Society Occasional Paper 3 Google Scholar
McComb, A.M.G. 2009. The ecology of hazel (Corylus avellena) nuts in Mesolithic Ireland. In McCartan, S.B., Schulting, R., Warren, G. & Woodman, P. (eds), Mesolithic Horizons: papers presented at the Seventh International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belfast 2005, 225–31. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Millett, M. 2006. Shiptonthorpe, East Yorkshire: Archaeological studies of a Romano-British roadside settlement. Yeadon: Yorkshire Archaeological Report 5 Google Scholar
Milner, N. 2005. Can seasonality studies be used to identify sedentism in the past? In Bailey, D., Cummings, V. & Whittle, A. (eds), (Un)settling the Neolithic, 32–7. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Mukherjee, A.J. 2004. The Importance of Pigs in the Later British Neolithic: Integrating stable isotope evidence from lipid residues in archaeological potsherds, animal bone, and modern animal tissues. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of BristolGoogle Scholar
Mukherjee, A.J., Copley, M.S., Berstan, R., Clark, K.A. & Evershed, R.P. 2005. Interpretation of δ13C values of fatty acids in relation to animal husbandry, food processing and consumption in prehistory. In Mulville, J. & Outram, A. (eds), The Zooarchaeology of Milk and Fats, 7793. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Murray, H.K. & Murray, J.C. 2014. Mesolithic and Early Neolithic activity along the Dee: Excavations at Garthdee Road, Aberdeen. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 144, 164 Google Scholar
Murray, H.K., Murray, J.C. & Fraser, S. (eds). 2009. A Tale of the Unknown Unknowns: A Mesolithic pit alignment and a Neolithic timber hall at Warren Field, Crathes, Aberdeenshire. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) 2017. British Geological Survey (BGS): Geology of Britain viewer. http://mapapps.bgs.ac.uk/geologyofbritain/home.html (Accessed on 28.2.17)Google Scholar
Naylor, J.C. & Smith, A.F.M. 1988. An archaeological inference problem. Journal of American Statistical Association 83, 588–95Google Scholar
Needham, S., Parker Pearson, M., Tyler, A., Richards, M. & Jay, M. 2010. A first ‘Wessex 1’ date from Wessex. Antiquity 84, 363–7310.1017/S0003598X00066631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Northern Archaeological Associates (NAA) 2012. Stainton Quarry, Stainton with Adgarley, Cumbria. Archaeological evaluation, Written Scheme of Investigation. Barnard Castle: NAA unpublished typescript report 12/130 Google Scholar
Northern Archaeological Associates (NAA) 2013a. Stainton Quarry, Stainton with Adgarley, Cumbria. Archaeological Watching Brief, Written Scheme of Investigation. Barnard Castle: NAA unpublished typescript report 13/30 Google Scholar
Northern Archaeological Associates (NAA) 2013b. Stainton Quarry, Furness, Cumbria: Archaeological Evaluation Report. Barnard Castle: NAA unpublished typescript report 13/11 Google Scholar
Northern Archaeological Associates (NAA) 2015. Stainton Quarry, Furness, Cumbria: Post-Excavation Assessment Report. Barnard Castle: NAA unpublished typescript report 15/130 Google Scholar
Northern Archaeological Associates (NAA) 2017. Stainton Quarry, Furness, Cumbria: Analysis Report. Barnard Castle: NAA unpublished typescript report 16/133 Google Scholar
Northern Archaeological Associates (NAA) 2019. Breast Mill Beck Road, Barrow-in-Furness: Archaeological Evaluation Interim Report. Barnard Castle: NAA unpublished typescript report 19/76 Google Scholar
Oldfield, F. & Statham, D. 1963. Pollen-analytical data from Urswick Tarn and Ellenside Moss, North Lancashire. New Phytologist 62, 5366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orton, C. 2000. Sampling in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oswald, A., Dyer, C. & Barber, M. 2001. The Creation of Monuments: Neolithic causewayed enclosures in the British Isles. Swindon: English Heritage Google Scholar
Outram, A.K., Stear, N.A., Bendrey, R., Olsen, S., Kasparov, A., Zaibert, V., Thorpe, N. & Evershed, R.P. 2009. The earliest horse harnessing and milking. Science 323(5919), 1332–5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oxford Archaeology North (OAN) 2002. Holbeck Park Avenue, Barrow-in-Furness, Evaluation Report. Lancaster: OAN unpublished typescript report Google Scholar
Oxford Archaeology North (OAN) 2014. Roose Quarry Extension, Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria: Archaeological Evaluation. Lancaster: OAN unpublished typescript report 2013-14/1492 Google Scholar
Oxford Archaeology North (OAN) 2015. Carlisle Northern Development Route: Archaeological Post-Excavation Project, Axes. http://cndr.oxfordarchaeology.com/content/axes (Accessed on 3.12.15)Google Scholar
Pollard, J. 2000. Neolithic occupational practices and social ecologies from Rinyo to Clacton. In Ritchie, A. (ed.), Neolithic Orkney in its European Context, 363–70. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs Google Scholar
Pollard, J. 2001. The aesthetics of depositional practice. World Archaeology 33(2), 315–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, T.G.E. 1963. Excavations at Skelmore Heads near Ulverston, 1957 and 1959. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 63(2), 130 Google Scholar
Rathbone, S. 2013. A consideration of villages in Neolithic and Bronze Age Britain and Ireland. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 79, 3960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C.E., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T.J., Hoffmann, D.L., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., Manning, S.W., Niu, M., Reimer, R.W., Richards, D.A., Scott, E.M., Southon, J.R., Staff, R.A., Turney, C.S.M. & van der Plicht, J. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4), 1869–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rowley-Conwy, P. 2003. No fixed abode? Nomadism in the northwest European Neolithic. In Burenhult, G. & Westergaard, S. (eds), Stones and Bones. Formal Disposal of the Dead in Atlantic Europe during the Mesolithic–Neolithic Interface 6000–3000 BC, 115–44. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S1201 Google Scholar
Rowley-Conwy, P. 2004. How the west was lost. A reconsideration of agricultural origins in Britain, Ireland and southern Scandinavia. Current Anthropology 45, S83113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rowley-Conwy, P. & Owen, A. C. 2011. Grooved Ware feasting in Yorkshire: Late Neolithic animal consumption at Rudston Wold. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 30(4), 325–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagan, C. 1995. Demon-Haunted World: Science as a candle in the dark. New York: Random House Google Scholar
Salque, M. 2012. Regional and Chronological Trends in Milk Use in Prehistoric Europe Traced Through Molecular and Stable Isotope Signatures of Fatty Acyl Lipids Preserved in Pottery Vessels. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of BristolGoogle Scholar
Sheridan, A. 2003. French connections I: spreading the marmites thinly. In Armit et al. (eds) 2003a, 317 Google Scholar
Sheridan, A. 2007. From Picardie to Pickering and Pencraig Hill? New information on the Carinated Bowl Neolithic in northern Britain. In Whittle, A. & Cummings, V. (eds) Going Over: The Mesolithic–Neolithic transition in North-West Europe, 441–92. Oxford: British Academy & Oxford University Press Google Scholar
Sheridan, A. 2010. The Neolithization of Britain and Ireland: The ‘Big Picture.’ In Finlayson, B. & Warren, G. (eds), Landscapes in Transition, 89105. Oxford: Council for British Research in the Levant Supplementary Series 8 Google Scholar
Simmons, I.G. 2003. The Moorlands of England and Wales. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Google Scholar
Soil Surveys of England & Wales (SSEW) 1983. Soils of England and Wales 1:250 000: Sheet 1 – Northern England. Harpenden: Lawes Agricultural Trust (Soil Surveys of England and Wales) Google Scholar
Šoberl, L. & Evershed, R. 2009. Organic residue analysis of pottery samples from Warren Field timber hall and the Crathes Castle Overflow Car Park site. In Murray et al. (eds) 2009, 93–7Google Scholar
Spangenberg, J.E., Jacomet, S. & Schibler, J. 2006. Chemical analyses of organic residues in archaeological pottery from Arbon Bleiche 3, Switzerland – evidence for dairying in the late Neolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science 33(1), 113 Google Scholar
Spikins, P. 1999. Mesolithic Northern England: Environment, population and settlement. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 283 Google Scholar
Spikins, P. 2008. Mesolithic Europe: Glimpses of another world. In Bailey & Spikins (eds) 2008, 117 Google Scholar
Thomas, J. 1996. Neolithic houses in mainland Britain and Ireland – a sceptical view. In Darvill & Thomas (eds) 1996, 112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, J. 1999. Understanding the Neolithic. A Revised Second Edition of Rethinking the Neolithic. London: Routledge Google Scholar
Thomas, J. 2004. Materiality and traditions of practice in Neolithic south-west Scotland. In Cummings, V. & Fowler, C.. (eds), The Neolithic of the Irish Sea: Materiality and traditions of practice, 174–84. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Thomas, J. 2007. The Holywood cursus complex. In Thomas, J. (ed.), Place and Memory: Excavations at The Pict’s Knowe, Holywood and Holm Farm, Dumfries and Galloway, 1994–8, 166–99. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Thomas, J. 2008. The Mesolithic–Neolithic transition in Britain. In Pollard, J. (ed.), Prehistoric Britain, 5889. Oxford: Blackwell Google Scholar
Thomas, J. 2012. Introduction: Beyond the mundane. In Anderson-Whymark, H. & Thomas, J. (eds), Regional Perspectives on Neolithic Pit Deposition: Beyond the mundane, 112. Oxford: Neolithic Studies Group Seminar Papers 12 Google Scholar
Tipper, J. 2004. The Grubenhaus in Anglo-Saxon England: An analysis and interpretation of the evidence from a most distinctive building type. Yedingham: Landscape Research Centre Google Scholar
Tomii, M. 1996. Neolithic Sedentism of Small-scale Communities in the British Isles: Inference from housing and woodland exploitation. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of DurhamGoogle Scholar
Waterbolk, H. T. 1971. Working with radiocarbon dates. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 37, 1533 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whittle, A.W.R., Healy, F. & Bayliss, A. (eds). 2011. Gathering Time: Dating the Early Neolithic enclosures of southern Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxbow Books CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wild, C. 2003. A Bronze Age cremation cemetery at Allithwaite, Cumbria. Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society 3(3), 2450 Google Scholar
Williams, J.Ll.W. & Kenney, J. 2009. Graig Lwyd (Group VII) Lithic Assemblages from the Excavations at Parc Bryn Cegin, Llandygai, Gwynedd, Wales – Analysis and Interpretation. Internet Archaeology 26 http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue26/30/toc.html (Accessed on 13.2.17)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Furness’s First Farmers: Evidence of Early Neolithic Settlement and Dairying in Cumbria
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Furness’s First Farmers: Evidence of Early Neolithic Settlement and Dairying in Cumbria
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Furness’s First Farmers: Evidence of Early Neolithic Settlement and Dairying in Cumbria
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *