In the Secondary Products Revolution model advanced by Sherratt it was predicted that increased use of animals for labour and dairy products would be visible archaeologically in animal bone collections. Published faunal data from Spain and Portugal for the period 5000–1000 bc show that horses, traction animals and dairy products all became more important after 2000 bc. An historical-geographical analogy from pre-industrial Spain suggests that by 1500 bc there was a degree of specialization in stockraising which could be understood best if sites were integrated economically over a wide region. This is the ‘policultivo ganadero’ of Spanish geographers, and the title is selected deliberately to compare with the Mediterranean polyculture based on plants.
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