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Wooden Implements from Late Stone Age Sites at Gwisho Hot-springs, Lochinvar, Zambia

  • Brian M. Fagan (a1), Francis L. van Noten (a2) and J. R. Vynckier

Discoveries of organic remains are rare on Late Stone Age sites in southern Africa. However, it is known from numerous historical records that in the case of the Wilton people the perishable elements of the material culture were in many cases the most important aspects of the tool-kit of Late Stone Age man.

The prehistoric settlements at Gwisho hot-springs, Lochinvar, Zambia, assume particular importance, for excellent circumstances of preservation have enabled us to make an exceptionally complete reconstruction of Late Stone Age economy and material culture in a savannah woodland and riverside environment. The object of this paper, in advance of a comprehensive study, is to describe some of the wooden implements found at the sites during recent excavations.

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page 246 note 1 B. M. Fagan and F. L. Van Noten, The hunters of Gwisho. In preparation.

page 247 note 1 Gabel, C., Stone Age hunters of the Kafue, Boston, 1965.

page 247 note 2 Van Noten, F. L., ‘Archaeologische Opgravingen in Rhodesie, 1963’, Africa—Tervuren, X, 1964, 1, 17; also Nouvelles fouilles à Lochinvar (Zambia), 1964’, Africa—Tervuren, XI, 1965, 1, 1622.

page 247 note 3 Fagan, B. M. and Phillipson, D. W., ‘Sebanzi: the Iron Age sequence at Lochinvar, and the Tonga’. Journ. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, 95, 1965, 2, 253–94.

page 248 note 1 C. Gabel, op cit., 1965, 30.

page 248 note 2 ibid., 61.

page 248 note 3 Clark, J. Desmond, ‘Further excavations (1938) at the Mumbwa caves, Northern Rhodesia’, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr., XXIX, 1942, III, 133201.

page 248 note 4 C. Gabel, op. cit., 1965, 78 ff.

page 249 note 1 F. L. Van Noten, op. cit., 1965, fig. 4.

page 249 note 2 ibid., fig. 5.

page 249 note 3 A full report on the Lochinvar woods is not yet available; we are grateful to Monsieur Dechamps for kindly supplying us with provisional identifications.

page 249 note 4 We are most grateful to Dr R. B. Lee for arranging to visit our excavations, and for providing facilities for one of us (FVN) to study the material culture of !Kung Bushmen in the field.

page 251 note 1 The curvature of this specimen and several others described below may be due to warping in the deposits. But the curved point can be compared to a closely similar bone specimen from Amadzimba cave in the Matopo Hills near Bulawayo (Cooke, C. K. and Robinson, K. R., ‘Excavations at Amadzimba cave, located in the Matopo Hills, Southern Rhodesia’, Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. S. Rhod., 19, 1954, fig. 3, 10).

page 251 note 2 Shaw, E. M., Woolley, P. L., Rae, F. A., ‘Bushmen Arrow Poisons’, Cimbebasia, 7, 1963, 141.

page 251 note 3 E. M. Shaw et al. op. cit., 1963, 17.

page 253 note 1 C. Gabel, op. cit., 1965, 52.

page 253 note 2 Clark, J. Desmond, The Prehistory of Southern Africa, Harmondsworth, 1959, fig. 51, 3.

page 253 note 3 Mr L. H. Robbins: personal communication. Turkana cultivation sticks, which are thrown and pushed into the ground average 6^4. feet (1.37 m.) in length.

page 253 note 4 Thomson, D. F., ‘Some wood and stone implements of the Bindibu tribe of Central Western Australia’. PPS, n.s., XXX (1964), pl. XXXV. Bindibu digging sticks, used for food gathering, averaged between 39 and 54 inches (99.1 and 137.2 cm.) in length (Thomson, op. cit., 1964, 407).

page 259 note 1 C. Gabel, op. cit., 1965, 37.

page 259 note 2 MacCalman, H. R. and Grobbelaar, B. J., ‘Preliminary Report of two stone-working OvaTjimba groups in the Northern Kaokoveld of South West Africa’, Cimbebasia, 13, 1965, 18.

page 259 note 3 J. D. Clark, op. cit., 1959, 200.

page 259 note 4 Hewitt, J., ‘Artefacts from Melkhoutboom’, S. Afr. Journ. of Sci., 28, 1931, 540–8.

page 259 note 5 Clark, J. Desmond and Walton, James, ‘A late Stone Age site in the Erongo Mountains, South West Africa’, PPS, n.s., XXVIII, 1962, 116.

page 260 note 1 Cooke, C. K., ‘Report on Excavations at Pomongwe and Tshangula caves, Matopo Hills, Southern RhodesiaS. Afr. Archaeol. Bull., 18, 71, 1963, fig. 22, 8–10, 110.

page 260 note 2 Jones, Neville, The Stone Age in Rhodesia, London, 1926, figs. 24, 4 and 34.

page 260 note 3 C. K. Cooke and K. R. Robinson, op. cit., 1954.

page 260 note 4 J. Desmond Clark, op. cit., 1959, 201.

page 260 note 5 Werner, A. E., ‘Consolidation of fragile objects’, in Recent Advances in Conservation, London, 1963, 125–7.

page 260 note 6 As was described by Lefève, R., ‘Conserveringsbehandeling met polyethyleenglykol van een Romeins houten emmertje opgegraven te Wemmel’, Bull. Institut royal du Patrimoine artistique, IV, 1961, 31–4.

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Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
  • ISSN: 0079-497X
  • EISSN: 2050-2729
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