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The Unexpurgated A Connecticut Yankee: Mark Twain and His Illustrator, Daniel Carter Beard

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 July 2009

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Extract

Readers must have reacted with shock and surprise when in December, 1889, they entered the sixth-century world of Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee and found it peopled with familiar nineteenthcentury figures. Sarah Bernhardt, whose exploits had charmed and embarrassed audiences during her 1880 and 1887 American tours, was pictured as a young page who befriends the Yankee, Hank Morgan. The petite actress Annie Russell, whose success in the hit play Esmeralda filled New York theaters in the eighties, appeared “in the pages as Sandy, the heroine” of the novel. One “supercilious young knight was modelled after the ex-Kaiser Wilhelm; the jovial Baron after the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII); and the greedy, grasping merchant after one of the important American capitalists of the eighties,” Jay Gould.

Type
An American Tragedy: A 50th Anniversary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1976

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References

1. Beard, Dan, Hardly A Man Is Now Alive: The Autobiography of Dan Beard (New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1939), p. 337.Google Scholar

2. Clemens, Cyril, My Cousin Mark Twain (Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, 1939), p. 114.Google Scholar

3. Mark Twain's Letters to His Publishers, ed. Hill, Hamlin (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1967), p. 253.Google Scholar

4. Letter dated June 14, 1889, in Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection, New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations. Copyright 1975 by Thomas G. Chamberlain and Hanover Trust Company as trustee under the Will of Clara Clemens Samossoud.

5. Mark Twain's Letters, ed. Hill, p. 253.

6. Clemens, Cyril, “Dan Beard and, A Connecticut Yankee,” Hobbies, 10, 1974, p. 134.Google Scholar

7. Mark Twain's Letters, ed. Hill, p. 254.Google Scholar

8. Ibid., p. 254.

9. Ibid., p. 254.

10. Mark Twain's Letters to Mrs. Fairbanks, ed. Wector, Dixon (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1949), pp. 257–58.Google Scholar

11. Beard, Dan, Autobiography, p. 337.Google Scholar

12. Mark Twain's Letters, ed. Hill, p. 253.Google Scholar

13. Ibid., p. 254.

14. Letter dated 1889, Berg Collection, NYPL.

15. Dan Beard sent a cover design to Fred Hall where he had “taken the liberty of leaving out the word ‘Connecticut’ in the title.” Beard explained that this was not an unusual procedure “that too much lettering would not look well.” The English edition retained this shortened name and Beard often refers to the book in this way in his correspondence. Mark Twain's Letters, ed. Hill, p. 256.Google Scholar

16. Dan Beard Papers, Manuscript Divison, Library of Congress.

17. From a first edition copy of A Connecticut Yankee, annotated by Dan Beard, in the Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.

18. Mark Twain-Howells Letters, ed. Smith, Henry Nash and Gibson, William M. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ., 1960), II, 611.Google Scholar

19. Mark Twain's Letters, ed. Hill, p. 258.Google Scholar

20. Mark Twain-Howells Letters, II, 614.Google Scholar

21. Mark Twain's Letters, ed. Hill, p. 258.Google Scholar

22. Smith, Henry Nash, Mark Twain: The Development of a Writer (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962), p. 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

23. Mark Twain-Howells Letters, II, 610.Google Scholar

24. Comments written by Isabel Lyons on the Baxter letter file, Berg Collection, NYPL.

25. Mark Twain-Howells Letters, II, 612.Google Scholar

26. Ibid..

27. Letter dated 1889, Berg Collection, NYPL.

28. Ibid.

29. Mark Twain Himself: A Pictorial Biography, ed. Milton Meltzer (New York: Crowell, 1960), pp. 160–61.Google Scholar

30. Ibid., p. 204.

31. Johnson, Merle, A Bibliography of the Works of Mark Twain, Samuel Langhome Clemens, A List of First Editions in Book Form (New York: Harper, 1935), p. 13.Google Scholar

32. Mark Twain-Howells Letters, II, 612.Google Scholar

33. Smith, Henry Nash, Mark Twain's Fable of Progress (New Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1964), p. 79.Google Scholar

34. Letter from Dan Beard, dated April 9, 1915, Beinecke Library.

35. Smith, Henry Nash, Fable, p. 93.Google Scholar

36. Mark Twain: The Critical Heritage, ed. Anderson, Frederick (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1971), p. 151.Google Scholar

36. Mark Twain-Howells Letters, II, 624.Google Scholar

38. The Critical Heritage, ed. Anderson. All reviews quoted are in this volume.

39. Mark Twain's Letters, ed. Hill, p. 262.Google Scholar

40. Beard, Dan, Autobiography, p. 337.Google Scholar

41. Dan Beard Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

42. Beard, Dan, Autobiography, p. 338.Google Scholar

43. Mark Twain Quarterly, 7 (Winter-Spring, 19451946), p. 22.Google Scholar

44. Comments from an interview with Dan Beard dated May 8, 1934, Beinecke Library.

45. Dan Beard Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

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