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    Corner, Adam and Pidgeon, Nick 2015. Like artificial trees? The effect of framing by natural analogy on public perceptions of geoengineering. Climatic Change, Vol. 130, Issue. 3, p. 425.

    Linnér, Björn-Ola and Wibeck, Victoria 2015. Dual high-stake emerging technologies: a review of the climate engineering research literature. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue. 2, p. 255.

    Lomax, Guy Workman, Mark Lenton, Timothy and Shah, Nilay 2015. Reframing the policy approach to greenhouse gas removal technologies. Energy Policy, Vol. 78, p. 125.

    Preston, Christopher J. 2015. Framing an ethics of climate management for the anthropocene. Climatic Change, Vol. 130, Issue. 3, p. 359.

    Symons, Jonathan and Karlsson, Rasmus 2015. Green political theory in a climate-changed world: between innovation and restraint. Environmental Politics, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 173.

    Boucher, Olivier Forster, Piers M. Gruber, Nicolas Ha-Duong, Minh Lawrence, Mark G. Lenton, Timothy M. Maas, Achim and Vaughan, Naomi E. 2014. Rethinking climate engineering categorization in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 23.

    Cairns, Rose C. 2014. Climate geoengineering: issues of path-dependence and socio-technical lock-in. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue. 5, p. 649.

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    Belter, Christopher W. and Seidel, Dian J. 2013. A bibliometric analysis of climate engineering research. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue. 5, p. 417.


Situating and Abandoning Geoengineering: A Typology of Five Responses to Dangerous Climate Change

  • Clare Heyward (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 04 January 2013

Geoengineering, the “deliberate, large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment in order to counteract anthropogenic climate change” (Shepherd et al. 2009, 1), is attracting increasing interest. As well as the Royal Society, various scientific and government organizations have produced reports on the potential and challenge of geoengineering as a potential strategy, alongside mitigation and adaptation, to avoid the vast human and environmental costs that climate change is thought to bring (Blackstock et al. 2009; GAO 2010; Long et al. 2011; Rickels et al. 2011). “Geoengineering” covers a diverse range of proposals conventionally divided into carbon dioxide removal (CDR) proposals and solar radiation management (SRM) proposals. This article argues that “geoengineering” should not be regarded as a third category of response to climate change, but should be disaggregated. Technically, CDR and SRM are quite different and discussing them together under the rubric of geoengineering can give the impression that all the technologies in the two categories of response always raise similar challenges and political issues when this is not necessarily the case. However, CDR and SRM should not be completely subsumed into the preexisting categories of mitigation and adaptation. Instead, they can be regarded as two parts of a five-part continuum of responses to climate change. To make this case, the first section of this article discusses whether geoengineering is distinctive, and the second situates CDR and SRM in relation to other responses to climate change.

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D. Jamieson 1996. “Ethics and Intentional Climate Change.” Climatic Change 33: 323–36.

C. Marchetti 1977. “On Geoengineering and the CO2 Problem.” Climatic Change 1: 5968.

M.L. Parry , O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson eds. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

T. Schelling 1996. “The Economic Diplomacy of Geoengineering.” Climatic Change 33: 303–7.

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PS: Political Science & Politics
  • ISSN: 1049-0965
  • EISSN: 1537-5935
  • URL: /core/journals/ps-political-science-and-politics
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