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Learning disability psychiatry – the future of services

  • J. M. O'Dwyer (a1)
Extract

Distinctions between mental illness and learning disability have existed since the last century (Pinel, 1801; Ireland, 1877). The conditions have been accepted as coexisting in the same individual since the beginning of this century (Kraepelin, 1902). More recent papers have investigated the frequency of their coexistence and concluded that most psychiatric disorders are more common in those with learning disability than the general population (Turner, 1989).

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
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Bailey, N. M. & Cooper, A. (1997) The current provision of specialist health services to people with learning disabilities in England and Wales. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 41, 5259.
Buckley, R., Kilby, C. & Parsons, T. (1988) Report of a Survey of People Discharged from Health and Family and Community Services Residential Care into the Community During 1986. Sheffield Case Register Report No. 20. Sheffield: Sheffield Case Register.
Cooper, B. & Fearn, R. (1998) Dementia care needs in an area population: case register data and morbidity survey estimates. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 13, 550555.
Cooper, S. A. (1997) High prevalence of dementia among people with learning disabilities not attributable to Down's syndrome. Psychological Medicine, 27, 609616.
Day, K. (1983) A hospital-based psychiatric unit for mentally handicapped adults. Mental Handicap, 11, 137140.
Day, K. (1993) Mental health services for people with mental retardation: a framework for the future. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 37, (suppl.1), 716.
Fraser, W. & Nolan, M. (1994) Psychiatric disorders in mental retardation. In Mental Health in Mental Retardation (ed. Bouras, N.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gillberg, C, Persson, E., Grufman, M., et al (1986) Psychiatric disorders in mildly and severely mentally retarded urban children and adolescents: epidemiological aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 6874.
Ireland, W. W. (1877) On Idiocy and Imbecility. London: J. & A. Churchill.
Kraeplin, E. (1902) Psychiatrie. (Trans by Deferndorf, A. R.) NewYork: New York University Press.
O'BRIEN, G. (1990) Current patterns of service provision for the psychiatric needs of mentally handicapped people: visiting centres in England and Wales. Psychiatric Bulletin, 14, 67.
Pinel, P. H. (1801) A Treatise on Insanity. (Trans by Davies, D. D., 1962). Haffner: NewYork.
Reid, A. H. (1994) Psychiatry and learning disability. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 613618.
Reid, A. H., Swanson, A. J. G., Jain, A. S., et al (1987) Manic-depressive psychosis with mental retardation and flexion deformities: a clinical and cytogenetic study. British Journalof Psychiatry, 150, 9297.
Sansom, D. T., Singh, I., Jawed, S. H., et al (1994) Elderly people with learning disabilities in hospital: A psychiatric study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 38, 4552.
Turner, T. H. (1989) Schizophrenia and mental handicap – an historical review with implications for further research. Psychological Medicine, 19, 301314.
Vitiello, B., Spreat, S. & Behar, D. (1989) Obsessive–compulsive disorder in mentally retarded patients. Journal of Mental and Nervous Disease, 177, 232235.
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BJPsych Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0955-6036
  • EISSN: 1472-1473
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-bulletin
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Learning disability psychiatry – the future of services

  • J. M. O'Dwyer (a1)
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