Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-npccv Total loading time: 0.381 Render date: 2022-09-30T23:20:50.314Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Defining nicotine dependence for genetic research: evidence from Australian twins

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 July 2004

CHRISTINA N. LESSOV
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
NICHOLAS G. MARTIN
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
DIXIE J. STATHAM
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
ALEXANDRE A. TODOROV
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
WENDY S. SLUTSKE
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
KATHLEEN K. BUCHOLZ
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
ANDREW C. HEATH
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
PAMELA A. F. MADDEN
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

Abstract

Background. Whether current criteria used to define nicotine dependence are informative for genetic research is an important empirical question. The authors used items of the DSM-IV and of the Heaviness of Smoking Index to characterize the nicotine dependence phenotype and to identify salient symptoms in a genetically informative community sample of Australian young adult female and male twins.

Method. Phenotypic and genetic factor analyses were performed on nine dependence symptoms (the seven DSM-IV substance dependence criteria and the two Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) items derived from the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire, time to first cigarette in the morning and number of cigarettes smoked per day). Phenotypic and genetic analyses were restricted to ever smokers.

Results. Phenotypic nicotine dependence symptom covariation was best captured by two factors with a similar pattern of factor loadings for women and men. In genetic factor analysis item covariation was best captured by two genetic but one shared environmental factor for both women and men; however, item factor loadings differed by gender. All nicotine dependence symptoms were substantially heritable, except for the DSM-IV criterion of ‘giving up or reducing important activities in order to smoke’, which was weakly familial.

Conclusions. The salient behavioral indices of nicotine dependence are similar for women and men. DSM-IV criteria of tolerance, withdrawal, and experiencing difficulty quitting and HSI items time to first cigarette in the morning and number of cigarettes smoked per day may represent the most highly heritable symptoms of nicotine dependence for both women and men.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2004 Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)
141
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Defining nicotine dependence for genetic research: evidence from Australian twins
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Defining nicotine dependence for genetic research: evidence from Australian twins
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Defining nicotine dependence for genetic research: evidence from Australian twins
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *