Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-8mfwn Total loading time: 0.25 Render date: 2022-07-01T03:54:49.236Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Leisure-time physical activity over the life course and cognitive functioning in late mid-adult years: a cohort-based investigation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 March 2013

A. Dregan*
Affiliation:
King's College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas'NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, London, UK
M. C. Gulliford
Affiliation:
King's College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas'NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, London, UK
*
*Address for correspondence: Dr A. Dregan, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas'NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, 6th Floor, Capital House, 42 Weston Street, London SE1 3QD, UK. (Email: alexandru.dregan@kcl.ac.uk)

Abstract

Background

The objective of the present study was to estimate the association between different leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) parameters from 11 to 50 years and cognitive functioning in late mid-adulthood.

Method

The study used a prospective birth cohort study including participants in the UK National Child Development Study (NCDS) from age 11 to 50 years. Standardized z scores for cognitive, memory and executive functioning at age 50 represented the primary outcome measures. Exposures included self-reported LTPA at ages 11, 16, 33, 42, 46 and 50 years. Analyses were adjusted for important confounders including educational attainment and long-standing illness.

Results

The adjusted difference in cognition score between women who reported LTPA for at least 4 days/week in five surveys or more and those who never reported LTPA for at least 4 days/week was 0.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20–0.35], 0.10 (95% CI 0.01–0.19) for memory score and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23–0.38) for executive functioning score. For men, the equivalent differences were: cognition 0.12 (95% CI 0.05–0.18), memory 0.06 (95% CI − 0.02 to 0.14) and executive functioning 0.16 (95% CI 0.10–0.23).

Conclusions

This study provides novel evidence about the lifelong association between LTPA and memory and executive functioning in mid-adult years. Participation in low-frequency and low-intensity LTPA was positively associated with cognitive functioning in late mid-adult years for men and women. The greatest benefit emerged from participating in lifelong intensive LTPA.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Angevaren, M, Vanhees, L, Nooyens, ACJ, Wendel-Wos, W, Vershcuren, VM (2010). Physical activity and 5-year cognitive decline in the Doetinchem cohort study. Annals of Epidemiology 20, 473479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Angevaren, M, Vanhees, L, Wendel-Wos, W, Veerhar, HJ, Aufdemkampe, G, Aleman, A, Vershcuren, VM (2007). Intensity, but not duration, of physical activities is associated with cognitive function. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 14, 825830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baars, MA, van Boxtel, MP, Dijkstra, , Visser, PJ, van den Akker, M, Verhey, FR, Jolles, J (2009). Predictive value of mild cognitive impairment for dementia: the influence of case definition and age. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 27, 173181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bijnen, FCH, Caspersen, CJ, Feskens, EJM, Saris, WH, Mosterd, WL, Kromhout, D (1998). Physical activity and 1-year mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes. The Zupthen Elderly Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 158, 14991505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowles, HR, Fitzgerald, SJ, Morrow, JR, Jackson, AW, Blair, SN (2004). Construct validity of self-reported historical physical activity. American Journal of Epidemiology 160, 279286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, M, Dodgeon, B (2010). NCDS Cognitive Assessment at Age 50: Initial Results. Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education: London.Google Scholar
Chang, M, Jonsson, PV, Snaedal, J, Bjornsson, S, Saczynski, JS, Aspelund, T, Eiriksdottir, G, Jonsdottir, MK, Lopez, OL, Harris, TN, Gudnason, V, Launer, LJ (2010). The effect of midlife physical activity on cognitive function among older adults: AGES–Reykjavik study. Journal of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 65, 13691374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Department of Health (2004). At Least Five a Week: Evidence on the Impact of Physical Activity on Health. Department of Health: London.Google Scholar
Devore, EE, Kang, JH, Okereke, O, Gordstein, F (2009). Physical activity levels and cognition in women with Type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Epidemiology 170, 10401047.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dik, MG, Deeg, DJH, Visser, M, Jonker, C (2010). Early life physical activity and cognition at old age. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 25, 643653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Douglas, JWB (1964). The Home and the School. Panther Books: London.Google Scholar
Dregan, A, Brown, J, Armstrong, D (2011). Do adult emotional and behavioural outcomes vary as a function of diverse childhood experiences of the public care system? Psychological Medicine 41, 22132220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dregan, A, Gulliford, MC (2011). Foster care, residential care and public care placement patterns are associated with adult life trajectories: population-based cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47, 15171526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dregan, A, Gulliford, MC (2012). Is illicit drug use harmful to cognitive functioning in the midadult years? A cohort-based investigation. American Journal of Epidemiology 175, 218227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedenreich, CM, Courneya, KS, Neilson, HK, Matthews, CE, Willis, G, Irwin, M, Trionao, R, Ballard-Barbash, R (2006). Reliability and validity of the Past Year Total Physical Activity Questionnaire. American Journal of Epidemiology 163, 959970.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedenreich, CM, Cust, AE (2008). Physical activity and breast cancer risk: impact of timing, type and dose of activity and population subgroup effects. British Journal of Sports Medicine 42, 636647.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomez-Pinilla, F (2011). Collaborative effect of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement. Nutrition and Health 20, 165169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haskell, WL, Lee, IM, Pate, RR, Powell, KE, Blair, SN, Franklin, BA, Macera, CA, Heath, GW, Thompson, PD, Bauman, A (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 39, 14231434.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkes, D, Plewis, I (2006). Modelling non-response in the National Child Development Study. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A 169, 479491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herzog, AR, Wallace, RB (1997). Measures of cognitive functioning in the AHEAD study. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Science and Social Science 52, 3748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horton, NJ, Lipsitz, SR (2011). Multiple imputation in practice: comparison of software packages for regression models with missing variables. American Statistical Association 55, 244254.Google Scholar
Kramer, AF, Bherer, L, Colcombe, SJ, Dong, W, Greenough, WT (2004). Environmental influences on cognitive and brain plasticity during aging. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 59, 940957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lai, S, Studenski, S, Richards, L, Perera, S, Reker, D, Rigler, S, Duncan, PW (2006). Therapeutic exercise and depressive symptoms after stroke. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 52, 240247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laurin, D, Verreault, R, Lindsay, J, MacPherson, K, Rockwood, K (2001). Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons. Archives of Neurology 58, 498504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loprinzi, PD, Cardinal, BJ (2012). Interrelationships among physical activity, depression, homocysteine, and metabolic syndrome with special considerations by sex. Preventive Medicine 54, 388394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyketsos, GC, Chen, L, Anthony, JC (1999). Cognitive decline in adulthood: an 11.5-year follow-up of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. American Journal of Psychiatry 156, 5865.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Middleton, LE, Barnes, DE, Lui, LY, Yaffe, K (2010). Physical activity over the life course and its association with cognitive performance and impairment in old age. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 58, 13221326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ostrowski, K, Ohde, T, Asp, S, Schjerling, P, Pedersen, BK (1999). Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology 515, 287291.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pereira, AC, Huddleston, DE, Brickman, AM, Sosunov, AA, Hen, R, McKhann, GM, Sloan, R, Gage, FH, Brown, TR, Small, SA (2007). An in-vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104, 56385643.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Power, C, Elliott, J (2006). Cohort profile: 1958 British birth cohort (National Child Development Study). International Journal of Epidemiology 35, 3441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Redila, VA, Christie, BR (2006). Exercise-induced changes in dendritic structure and complexity in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. Neuroscience 137, 12991307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richards, M, Hardy, R, Wadsworth, MEJ (2003). Does active leisure protect cognition? Evidence from a national birth cohort. Social Sciences and Medicine 56, 785792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M (1967). A children's behaviour questionnaire for completion by teachers: preliminary findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 8, 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M, Tizard, J, Whitmore, K (1970). Education, Health and Behaviour. Longmans: London.Google Scholar
Sabia, S, Nabi, H, Kivimaki, M, Shipley, MJ, Marmot, MG, Singh-Manoux, A (2009). Health behaviors from early to late midlife as predictors of cognitive function. The Whitehall II Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 170, 428437.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh-Manoux, A, Hillsdon, M, Brunner, E, Marmot, M (2005). Effects of physical activity on cognitive functioning in middle age: evidence from the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. American Journal of Public Health 95, 22522258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stamatakis, E, Hamer, M, Lawlor, DA (2009). Physical activity, mortality and cardiovascular disease: is domestic physical activity beneficial? American Journal of Epidemiology 169, 11911200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stern, Y (2006). Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 20, 112117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tierney, MC, Moineddin, R, Morra, A, Manosn, J, Blake, J (2010). Intensity of recreational physical activity throughout life and later life cognitive functioning in women. Journal of Alzheimer Disease 22, 13311338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Dam, RM, Li, T, Spiegelman, D, Franco, OH, Hu, FB (2008). Combined impact of lifestyle factors on mortality: prospective cohort study in US women. British Medical Journal 37, a1440.Google Scholar
Vercambre, MN, Grodstein, F, Manson, J, Stampfer, M, Kang, JH (2011). Physical activity and cognition in women with vascular conditions. Archives of Internal Medicine 171, 12441250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weuve, J, Kang, JH, Manson, JE, Breteler, MM, Ware, JH, Grodstein, F (2004). Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women. Journal of the American Medical Association 292, 14541461.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K, Barnes, D, Nevitt, M, Lui, LY, Covinsky, K (2001). A prospective study of physical activity and cognitive decline in elderly women: women who walk. Archives of Internal Medicine 161, 17031708.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Leisure-time physical activity over the life course and cognitive functioning in late mid-adult years: a cohort-based investigation
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Leisure-time physical activity over the life course and cognitive functioning in late mid-adult years: a cohort-based investigation
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Leisure-time physical activity over the life course and cognitive functioning in late mid-adult years: a cohort-based investigation
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *