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Neurobiological mechanisms of social cognition treatment in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 September 2019

Gabriela Rosenblau
Affiliation:
Cluster of Excellence ‘Languages of Emotion’, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany Department of Education and Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute, The George Washington University and Children's National Health System, 2115 G St NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA
Garret O'Connell
Affiliation:
Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Institute of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099, Berlin, Germany
Hauke R. Heekeren
Affiliation:
Cluster of Excellence ‘Languages of Emotion’, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany Department of Education and Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany Center for Cognitive Neuroscience Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Isabel Dziobek
Affiliation:
Cluster of Excellence ‘Languages of Emotion’, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany Department of Education and Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Institute of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099, Berlin, Germany
Corresponding
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Abstract

Background

The promise of precision medicine for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hinges on developing neuroscience-informed individualized interventions. Taking an important step in this direction, we investigated neuroplasticity in response to an ecologically-valid, computer-based social-cognitive training (SCOTT).

Methods

In an active control group design, 48 adults with ASD were randomly assigned to a 3-month SCOTT or non-social computer training. Participants completed behavioral tasks, a functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging session before and after the training period.

Results

The SCOTT group showed social-cognitive improvements on close and distant generalization tasks. The improvements scaled with reductions in functional activity and increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions.

Conclusion

In sum, we provide evidence for the sensitivity of neuroscientific methods to reflect training-induced social-cognitive improvements in adults with ASD. These results encourage the use of neuroimaging data to describe and quantify treatment-related changes more broadly.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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