Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-gblv7 Total loading time: 0.37 Render date: 2022-05-19T21:16:14.943Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Psychotic-like experiences in a community sample of 8000 children aged 9 to 11 years: an item response theory analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 October 2011

K. R. Laurens*
Affiliation:
Research Unit for Schizophrenia Epidemiology, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney, Australia Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK
M. J. Hobbs
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
M. Sunderland
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
M. J. Green
Affiliation:
Research Unit for Schizophrenia Epidemiology, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
G. L. Mould
Affiliation:
Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK
*
*Address for correspondence: Dr K. R. Laurens, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences (Box P023), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. (Email: Kristin.Laurens@kcl.ac.uk)

Abstract

Background

Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in the general population are common, particularly in childhood, and may constitute part of a spectrum of normative development. Nevertheless, these experiences confer increased risk for later psychotic disorder, and are associated with poorer health and quality of life.

Method

This study used factor analytic methods to determine the latent structure underlying PLEs, problem behaviours and personal competencies in the general child population, and used item response theory (IRT) to assess the psychometric properties of nine PLE items to determine which items best represented a latent psychotic-like construct (PSY). A total of 7966 children aged 9–11 years, constituting 95% of eligible children, completed self-report questionnaires.

Results

Almost two-thirds of the children endorsed at least one PLE item. Structural analyses identified a unidimensional construct representing psychotic-like severity in the population, the full range of which was well sampled by the nine items. This construct was discriminable from (though correlated with) latent dimensions representing internalizing and externalizing problems. Items assessing visual and auditory hallucination-like experiences provided the most information about PSY; delusion-like experiences identified children at more severe levels of the construct.

Conclusions

Assessing PLEs during middle childhood is feasible and supplements information concerning internalizing and externalizing problems presented by children. The hallucination-like experiences constitute appropriate items to screen the population to identify children who may require further clinical assessment or monitoring. Longitudinal follow-up of the children is required to determine sensitivity and specificity of the PLE items for later psychotic illness.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Arango, C (2011). Attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome: how it may affect child and adolescent psychiatry. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 20, 6770.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Armando, M, Nelson, B, Yung, AR, Ross, M, Birchwood, M, Girardi, P, Fiori Nastro, P (2010). Psychotic-like experiences and correlation with distress and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Schizophrenia Research 119, 258265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bak, M, Delespaul, P, Hanssen, M, de Graaf, R, Vollebergh, W, van Os, J (2003). How false are ‘false’ positive psychotic symptoms? Schizophrenia Research 62, 187189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barragan, M, Laurens, KR, Navarro, JB, Obiols, JE (2011). Psychotic-like experiences and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. European Psychiatry 26, 396401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentler, PM (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin 107, 238246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bradshaw, J, Bloor, K, Huby, M, Rhodes, D, Sinclair, I, Gibbs, I (2009). Local Index of Child Well-Being: Summary Report. Department for Communities and Local Government: London, UK.Google Scholar
Costello, A, Edelbrock, C, Kalas, R, Kessler, M, Klaric, S (1982). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Child Version. National Institute of Mental Health: Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
Cullen, AE, Dickson, H, West, SA, Morris, RG, Mould, GL, Hodgins, S, Murray, RM, Laurens, KR (2010). Neurocognitive performance in children aged 9–12 years who present putative antecedents of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 121, 1523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
David, AS (2010). Why we need more debate on whether psychotic symptoms lie on a continuum with normality. Psychological Medicine 40, 19351942.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Loore, E, Gunther, N, Drukker, M, Feron, F, Sabbe, B, Deboutte, D, van Os, J, Myin-Germeys, I (2011). Persistence and outcome of auditory hallucinations in adolescence: a longitudinal general population study of 1800 individuals. Schizophrenia Research 127, 252256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dhossche, D, Ferdinand, R, Van der Ende, J, Hofstra, MB, Verhulst, F (2002). Diagnostic outcome of self-reported hallucinations in a community sample of adolescents. Psychological Medicine 32, 619627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Embretson, S, Reise, S (2000). Item Response Theory for Psychologists. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
Goodman, A, Lamping, DL, Ploubidis, GB (2010). When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 38, 11791191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodman, R (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, 581586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodman, R (2001). Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 13371345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hu, L, Bentler, PM (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to underparamterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods 3, 424453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jennrich, RI, Sampson, PF (1966). Rotation for simple loadings. Psychometrika 31, 313323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaymaz, N, van Os, J (2010). Extended psychosis phenotype – yes: single continuum – unlikely. Psychological Medicine 40, 19631966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelleher, I, Cannon, M (2011). Psychotic-like experiences in the general population: characterizing a high-risk group for psychosis. Psychological Medicine 41, 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelleher, I, Harley, M, Murtagh, A, Cannon, M (2011). Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 352361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keshavan, MS, Delisi, LE, Seidman, LJ (2011). Early and broadly defined psychosis risk mental states. Schizophrenia Research 126, 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RC, Ormel, J, Petukhova, M, McLaughlin, KA, Green, JG, Russo, LJ, Stein, DJ, Zaslavsky, AM, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Andrade, L, Benjet, C, de Girolamo, G, de Graaf, R, Demyttenaere, K, Fayyad, J, Haro, JM, Hu, C, Karam, A, Lee, S, Lepine, JP, Matchsinger, H, Mihaescu-Pintia, C, Posada-Villa, J, Sagar, R, Ustun, TB (2011). Development of lifetime comorbidity in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 90–100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirkbride, JB, Fearon, P, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Morgan, K, Murray, RM, Jones, PB (2007). Neighbourhood variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in Southeast London. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 42, 438445.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krabbendam, L, Myin-Germeys, I, De Graaf, R, Vollebergh, W, Nolen, WA, Iedema, J, Van Os, J (2004). Dimensions of depression, mania and psychosis in the general population. Psychological Medicine 34, 11771186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, RF (1999). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 921926.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lahey, BB, Van Hulle, CA, Singh, AL, Waldman, ID, Rathouz, PJ (2011). Higher-order genetic and environmental structure of prevalent forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 181189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laurens, KR, Hodgins, S, Maughan, B, Murray, RM, Rutter, ML, Taylor, EA (2007). Community screening for psychotic-like experiences and other putative antecedents of schizophrenia in children aged 9–12 years. Schizophrenia Research 90, 130146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laurens, KR, Hodgins, S, Mould, GL, West, SA, Schoenberg, PL, Murray, RM, Taylor, EA (2010). Error-related processing dysfunction in children aged 9 to 12 years presenting putative antecedents of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 67, 238245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laurens, KR, Hodgins, S, Taylor, EA, Murray, RM (2011). Is earlier intervention for schizophrenia possible? Identifying antecedents of schizophrenia in children aged 9–12 years. In Schizophrenia: The Final Frontier – A Festscrift for Robin M. Murrary (ed. David, A. S., McGuffin, P. and Kapur, S.), pp. 1932. Psychology Press: London.Google Scholar
Laurens, KR, West, SA, Murray, RM, Hodgins, S (2008). Psychotic-like experiences and other antecedents of schizophrenia in children aged 9–12 years: a comparison of ethnic and migrant groups in the United Kingdom. Psychological Medicine 38, 11031111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawrie, SM, Hall, J, McIntosh, AM, Owens, DG, Johnstone, EC (2010). The ‘continuum of psychosis’: scientifically unproven and clinically impractical. British Journal of Psychiatry 197, 423425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linscott, RJ, van Os, J (2010). Systematic reviews of categorical versus continuum models in psychosis: evidence for discontinuous subpopulations underlying a psychometric continuum. Implications for DSM-V, DSM-VI, and DSM-VII. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 6, 391419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackie, CJ, Castellanos-Ryan, N, Conrod, PJ (2011). Developmental trajectories of psychotic-like experiences across adolescence: impact of victimization and substance use. Psychological Medicine 41, 4758.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacManus, D, Laurens, KR, Walker, EF, Brasfield, JL, Riaz, M, Hodgins, S (2011). Movement abnormalities and psychotic-like experiences in childhood: markers of developing schizophrenia? Psychological Medicine. Published online 11 July 2011. doi:10.1017/S0033291711001085.Google ScholarPubMed
Markon, KE (2010). Modeling psychopathology structure: a symptom-level analysis of Axis I and II disorders. Psychological Medicine 40, 273288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan, C, Fisher, H, Hutchinson, G, Kirkbride, J, Craig, TK, Morgan, K, Dazzan, P, Boydell, J, Doody, GA, Jones, PB, Murray, RM, Leff, J, Fearon, P (2009). Ethnicity, social disadvantage and psychotic-like experiences in a healthy population based sample. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 119, 226235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muris, P, Meesters, C, Eijkelenboom, A, Vincken, M (2004). The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: its psychometric properties in 8- to 13-year-old non-clinical children. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 43, 437448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthén, L, Muthén, B (1998–2010). Mplus User's Guide. Muthén & Muthén: Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
Noble, M, McLennan, D, Wilkinson, K, Whitworth, A, Barnes, H, Dibben, C (2008). The English Indices of Deprivation 2007. Department for Communities and Local Government: London, UK.Google Scholar
Nuevo, R, Chatterji, S, Verdes, E, Naidoo, N, Arango, C, Ayuso-Mateos, JL (2010). The continuum of psychotic symptoms in the general population: a cross-national study. Schizophrenia Bulletin. Published online 13 September 2010. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq099.Google ScholarPubMed
Perala, J, Suvisaari, J, Saarni, SI, Kuoppasalmi, K, Isometsa, E, Pirkola, S, Partonen, T, Tuulio-Henriksson, A, Hintikka, J, Kieseppa, T, Harkanen, T, Koskinen, S, Lonnqvist, J (2007). Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poulton, R, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Cannon, M, Murray, R, Harrington, H (2000). Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 10531058.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Samejima, F (1969). Estimation of Latent Ability Using a Response Patter of Graded Scores. Psychometric Monograph No. 17. Psychometric Society: Richmond, VA.Google Scholar
Stefanis, NC, Hanssen, M, Smirnis, NK, Avramopoulos, DA, Evdokimidis, IK, Stefanis, CN, Verdoux, H, van Os, J (2002). Evidence that three dimensions of psychosis have a distribution in the general population. Psychological Medicine 32, 347358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steiger, JH (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: an internal estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research 25, 173180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone, LL, Otten, R, Engels, RC, Vermulst, AA, Janssens, JM (2010). Psychometric properties of the parent and teacher versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 4- to 12-year-olds: a review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 13, 254274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Streiner, DL (2010). Measure for measure: new developments in measurement and item response theory. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 55, 180186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thissen, D, Chen, W-H, Bock, RD (2003). Multilog (Version 7). Scientific Software International: Lincolnwood, IL.Google Scholar
Tucker, LR, Lewis, C (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika 38, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Os, J, Hanssen, M, Bijl, RV, Ravelli, A (2000). Strauss (1969) revisited: a psychosis continuum in the general population? Schizophrenia Research 45, 1120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J, Linscott, RJ, Myin-Germeys, I, Delespaul, P, Krabbendam, L (2009). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine 39, 179195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Welham, J, Scott, J, Williams, G, Najman, J, Bor, W, O'Callaghan, M, McGrath, J (2009). Emotional and behavioural antecedents of young adults who screen positive for non-affective psychosis: a 21-year birth cohort study. Psychological Medicine 39, 625634.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wigman, JT, Lin, A, Vollebergh, WA, van Os, J, Raaijmakers, QA, Nelson, B, Baksheev, G, Yung, AR (2011). Subclinical psychosis and depression: co-occurring phenomena that do not predict each other over time. Schizophrenia Research 130, 277281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Laurens Supplementary Material

Laurens Supplementary Material

Download Laurens Supplementary Material(File)
File 65 KB
108
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Psychotic-like experiences in a community sample of 8000 children aged 9 to 11 years: an item response theory analysis
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Psychotic-like experiences in a community sample of 8000 children aged 9 to 11 years: an item response theory analysis
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Psychotic-like experiences in a community sample of 8000 children aged 9 to 11 years: an item response theory analysis
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *