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Residual symptoms after remission of major depressive disorder with citalopram and risk of relapse: a STAR*D report

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 May 2009

A. A. Nierenberg*
Affiliation:
Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
M. M. Husain
Affiliation:
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Dallas, TX, USA
M. H. Trivedi
Affiliation:
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Dallas, TX, USA
M. Fava
Affiliation:
Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
D. Warden
Affiliation:
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Dallas, TX, USA
S. R. Wisniewski
Affiliation:
Epidemiology Data Center, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
S. Miyahara
Affiliation:
Epidemiology Data Center, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
A. J. Rush
Affiliation:
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Departments of Clinical Sciences and Psychiatry, Dallas, TX, USA
*
*Address for correspondence: A. A. Nierenberg, M.D., Massachusetts General Hospital, Suite 580, 50 Staniford Street, Boston, MA02114, USA. (Email: anierenberg@partners.org)

Abstract

Background

Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who experience full symptomatic remission after antidepressant treatment still have residual depressive symptoms. We describe the types and frequency of residual depressive symptoms and their relationship to subsequent depressive relapse after treatment with citalopram in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial.

Method

Participants in primary (n=18) and psychiatric (n=23) practice settings were openly treated with citalopram using measurement-based care for up to 14 weeks and follow-up for up to 1 year. We assessed 943 (32.8% of 2876) participants who met criteria for remission to determine the proportions with individual residual symptoms and any of the nine DSM-IV criterion symptom domains to define a major depressive episode. At each visit, the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report (QIDS-SR16) and the self-report Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating (FIBSER) scale were used to assessed depressive symptoms and side-effects respectively.

Results

More than 90% of remitters had at least one residual depressive symptom (median=3). The most common were weight increase (71.3%) and mid-nocturnal insomnia (54.9%). The most common residual symptom domains were sleep disturbance (71.7%) and appetite/weight disturbance (35.9%). Those who remitted before 6 weeks had fewer residual symptoms at study exit than did later remitters. Residual sleep disturbance did not predict relapse during follow-up. Having a greater number of residual symptom domains was associated with a higher probability of relapse.

Conclusions

Patients with remission of MDD after treatment with citalopram continue to experience selected residual depressive symptoms, which increase the risk of relapse.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009

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