Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-598jt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-29T13:08:33.307Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Volumetric MRI measurements in bipolars compared with schizophrenics and healthy controls

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2009

I. Harvey
Institute of Neurology; Institute of Psychiatry, London
R. Persaud
Institute of Neurology; Institute of Psychiatry, London
M. A. Ron*
Institute of Neurology; Institute of Psychiatry, London
G. Baker
Institute of Neurology; Institute of Psychiatry, London
R. M. Murray
Institute of Neurology; Institute of Psychiatry, London
1Address for correspondence: Professor Maria A. Ron, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG


Twenty-six patients with RDC bipolar disorder were compared with a previously reported group of 48 RDC schizophrenics and 34 healthy controls, using volumetric MRI measurements of cerebral, cortical and sulcal volumes. The bipolar group appeared no different from the controls, and both of these groups had significantly larger cerebral and cortical volumes than the schizophrenics. Our previous report of a significantly reduced cortical volume in the schizophrenic group, with a corresponding increase in the volume of sulcal fluid is, therefore, not a generalized feature of psychotic illness but may be more specific to schizophrenia.

Original Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Altshuler, L. L., Conrad, A., Hauser, P., La, X., Guze, B. H., Denikoff, K., Tourtellote, W. & Post, R. (1991). Reduction of temporal lobe volume in bipolar disorder: a preliminary report of magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 482483.Google ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised 3rd ed. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Andreasen, N. C., Swayze, V., Flaum, M., Alliger, R. & Cohen, G. (1990). Ventricular abnormalities in affective disorder: clinical and demographic correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry 147, 893900.Google ScholarPubMed
Andreasen, N. C., Flaum, M., Swayze, V., O'Leary, D. S., Alliger, R., Cohen, G., Ehrhardt, J. & Yuh, W. T. (1993). Intelligence and brain structure in normal individuals. American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 130134.Google ScholarPubMed
Annett, M. (1970). A classification of hand preference by association analysis. British Journal of Psychology 61, 303321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Besson, J. A., Henderson, J. G., Foreman, E. I. & Smith, F. W. (1987). An NMR study of lithium responding manic-depressive patients. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 5, 273277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bland, J. M. & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurements. Lancet i, 307310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bogerts, B., Ashtari, M., DeGreef, G., Alvir, J.-M. S., Bilder, R. M. & Lieberman, J. A. (1990). Reduced temporal limbic structure volumes on magnetic resonance images in first episode schizophrenia. Psychiatric Research 35, 113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, R., Colter, N., Corsellis, J. A. N., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., Jagoe, R., Johnstone, E. C. & Marsh, L. (1986). Postmortem evidence of structural brain changes in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 43, 3642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruton, C. J., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., Johnstone, E. C., Owens, D. G. & Roberts, G. W. (1990). Schizophrenia and the brain: a prospective clinico-neuropathological study. Psychological Medicine 20, 285304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coffey, C. E., Wilkinson, W. E., Weiner, R. D., Parashos, I. A., Djang, W. T., Webb, M. C., Figiel, G. S. & Spritzer, C. E. (1993). Quantitative cerebral anatomy in depression: a controlled magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 716.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J. (1986). The continuum of psychosis and its implication for the structure of the gene. British Journal of Psychiatry 149, 419429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, P. J. M. & Wright, E. A. (1977). A new method for measuring cranial cavity volume and its application to the assessment of cerebral atrophy at autopsy. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 3, 341358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeLisi, L. E., Hoff, A. L., Schwartz, J. E., Shields, G. W., Halthore, S. N., Gupta, S. M., Henn, F. A. & Anand, A. K. (1991). Brain morphology in first episode schizophrenic-like psychotic patients: a quantitative MRI study. Biological Psychiatry 29, 159175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewan, M. J., Haldipur, C. V., Lane, E. E., Ispahani, A., Boucher, M. F. & Major, L. F. (1988). Bipolar affective disorder. I. Comprehensive quantitative computed tomography. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 77, 670676.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferrier, I. N. & Perry, E. K. (1992). Post-mortem studies in affective disorders. Psychological Medicine 22, 835838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gittelman, R. & Klein, D. F. (1969). Pre-morbid asocial adjustment and prognosis in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 7, 3553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldthorpe, J. H. & Hope, K. (1974). The Social Grading of Occupation – A New Approach and Scale. Clarendon Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
Gur, R. E., Mozley, P. D., Resnick, S. M., Shtasel, D., Kohn, M., Zimmerman, R., Herman, G., Atlas, S., Grossman, R., Erwin, R. & Gur, R. C. (1991). Magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia. I. Volumetric analysis of brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 407412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harvey, I., Williams, M., Toone, B. K., Lewis, S. W. & McGuffin, P. (1990). The ventricle–brain ratio (VBR) in functional psychoses: the relationship of lateral ventricular and total ventricular area. Psychological Medicine 20, 5562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvey, I., Tofts, P. S., Morris, J. K., Wicks, D. A. & Ron, M. A. (1991). Sources of T1 variance in normal human white matter. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 9, 5359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harvey, I., Ron, M. A., du Boulay, G., Wicks, D., Lewis, S. L. & Murray, R. M. (1993). Reduction of cortical volume in schizophrenia on magnetic resonance imaging. Psychological Medicine 23, 591604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Husain, M. M., McDonald, W. M., Doraiswamy, P. M., Figiel, G. S., Na, C. N., Escalona, P. R., Boyko, O. B., Nemeroff, C. B. & Krishnan, K. R. (1991). A magnetic resonance imaging study of putamen nuclei in major depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 40, 9599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iacono, W. G., Smith, G. N., Moreau, M., Beiser, M., Fleming, J. A., Lin, T. & Flak, B. (1988). Ventricular and sulcal size at the onset of psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 145, 820824.Google Scholar
lager, A.-C., Kirch, D. G. & Wyatt, R. J. (1985). A negative symptom rating scale. Psychiatry Research 16, 2736.Google Scholar
Jablensky, A., Cooper, J. E., Tomov, T., Schwarz, R., Biehl, H., Giel, R., Ibrahim, H. H., Isele, R., Krumm, B., Ozturk, O. M., Savasir, I., Schubart, C. & Wiersma, D. (1985). A Procedure and Schedule for the Assessment of Disability in Patients with Severe Psychiatric Disorders. World Health Organization: Geneva.Google Scholar
Jack, C. R., Dale, D. G., Sharbrough, F. W., Felmlee, J. P., Forbes, G., Hench, V. S. & Zinsmeister, A. R. (1988). Temporal lobe volume measurement from MR images: accuracy and left-right asymmetry in normal persons. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 12, 2129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jack, C. R., Twomey, C. K., Zinsmeister, A. R., Sharbrough, F. W., Petersen, R. C. & Cascino, G. D. (1989). Anterior temporal lobes and hippocampal formations: normative volumetric measurements from MR images in young adults. Radiology 172, 549554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jernigan, T. L., Press, A. & Hesselink, J. R. (1990). Methods for measuring brain morphologic features on magnetic resonance images. Archives of Neurology 47, 2732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, G., Miller, D. H., MacManus, D., Tofts, P., Barnes, D., du Boulay, E. P. & MacDonald, W. I. (1987 a). STIR sequences in NMR imaging of the optic nerve. Neuroradiology 29, 238245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, G., Ormerod, I. E., Barnes, D., Tofts, P. S. & MacManus, D. (1987 b). Accuracy and precision in the measurement of relaxation times in NMR images. British Journal of Radiology 60, 143153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnstone, E. C., Owens, D. G., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., Alexandropolis, K., Bydder, G. & Colter, N. (1989). Temporal lobe structure as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 52, 736741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelsoe, J. R., Cadet, J. L., Pickar, D. & Weinberger, D. R. (1988). Quantitative neuroanatomy in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 45, 533541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khang-cheng, H., Roessman, U., Straumfjord, J. V. & Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104, 635645.Google Scholar
Krishnan, K. R., McDonald, W. M., Escalona, P. R., Doraiswamy, P. M., Na, C., Husain, M. M., Figiel, G. S., Boyko, O. B., Ellinwood, E. H. & Nemeroff, C. B. (1992). Magnetic resonance imaging of the caudate nuclei in depression – preliminary observations. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 553557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, S. W., Owen, M. J. & Murray, R. M. (1989). Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: methodology and mechanisms. In Schizophrenia – A Scientific Focus (ed. Schulz, S. C. and Tamminga, C. A.), pp. 5668. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
McDonald, W. M. & Krishnan, K. R. (1992). Magnetic resonance in patients with affective illness. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 241, 283290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McManus, D. G., Kermode, A. G. & Tofts, P. S. (1989). A repositioning technique for cerebral magnetic resonance imaging of patients with multiple sclerosis.Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Abstracts (Volume 2) of the 8th Annual Meeting,Amsterdam1989, p. 617.Google Scholar
Nasrallah, H. A., McCalley-Whitters, M. & Jacoby, C. G. (1982). Cerebral ventricular enlargement in young manic males: a controlled CT study. Journal of Affective Disorders 4, 1519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, H. E. (1982). National Adult Reading Test: Manual. NFER-Nelson: Windsor.Google Scholar
Nelson, H. E. & O'Connell, A. (1978). Dementia: the estimation of premorbid intelligence levels using the new adult reading test. Cortex 14, 234244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norusis, M. J. (1988). SPSS/PC + Advanced Statistics V2.0. SPSS Inc.: Chicago.Google Scholar
Pakkenberg, B. (1987). Post-mortem study of chronic schizophrenic brains. British Journal of Psychiatry 151, 744752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearlson, G. D. & Veroff, A. E. (1981). Computerised tomographic scan changes in manic-depressive illness. Lancet ii, 470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearlson, G. D., Garbacz, D. J., Moberg, P. J., Ahn, H. S. & dePaulo, J. R. (1985). Symptomatic, familial, perinatal, and social correlates of computerized axial tomography (CAT) changes in schizophrenics and bipolars. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 173, 4250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rabins, P. V., Pearlson, G. D., Aylward, E., Kumar, A. J. & Dowell, K. (1991). Cortical magnetic resonance imaging changes in elderly inpatients with major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 148. 617620.Google ScholarPubMed
Rangel-Guerra, R. A., Perez-Payan, H., Minkoff, L. & Todd, L. E. (1983). Nuclear magnetic resonance in bipolar affective disorders. American Journal of Neuroradiology 4, 229231.Google ScholarPubMed
Rieder, R. O., Mann, L. S., Weinberger, D. R., van Kammen, D. P. & Post, R. M. (1983). Computed tomographic scans in patients with schizophrenia, schizo-affective and bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Pyschiatry 40, 735739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robb, R. A. & Barillot, C. (1989). Interactive display and analysis of 3-D medical images. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 8, 217226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossi, A., Stratta, P., Di Michele, V., Galluci, M., Slendiani, A., de Cataldo, S. & Cassacchia, M. (1991). Temporal lobe structure by magnetic resonance in bipolar affective disorders and schizophrenia. Journal of Affective Disorders 21, 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlegel, S. & Kretzschmar, K. (1987). Computed tomography in affective disorders. I. Ventricular and sulcal measurements. Biological Psychiatry 22, 414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978). Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a Selected Group of Functional Psychoses, 3rd edition. Biometrics Research Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute: New York.Google Scholar
Suddath, R. L., Casanova, M. F., Goldberg, T. E., Daniel, D. G., Kelsoe, J. R. & Weinberger, D. R. (1989). Temporal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. American Journal of Psychiatry 146, 464472.Google ScholarPubMed
Suddath, R. L., Christison, G. W., Fuller Torrey, E., Casanova, M. F. & Weinberger, D. R. (1990). Anatomical abnormalities in the brains of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine 322, 789794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swayze, V. W., Andreasen, N. C., Alliger, R. J., Ehrhardt, J. C. & Yuh, W. T. (1990). Structural brain abnormalities in bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 47, 10541059.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Horn, J. D., McManus, I. C. (1992). Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of studies of the ventricle: brain ratio. British Journal of Psychiatry 160, 687697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weinberger, D. R., DeLisi, L. E., Perman, G. P., Targum, S. & Wyatt, R. J. (1982). Computed tomography in schizophreniform disorder and other acute psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 778783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974). The Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
Zipursky, R. B., Lim, K. O., Sullivan, E. V., Brown, B. W. & Pfefferbaum, A. (1992). Widespread cerebral grey matter volume deficits in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 195205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zubenko, G. S., Sullivan, P., Nelson, J. P., Belle, S. H., Huff, F. J. & Wolf, G. L. (1990). Brain imaging abnormalities in mental disorders of late life. Archives of Neurology 47, 11071111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed