Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Björkenstam, Emma Burström, Bo Vinnerljung, Bo and Kosidou, Kyriaki 2016. Childhood adversity and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: An analysis of 107,704 Swedes. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 77, p. 67.


    Kaikkonen, Noora M. and Laukkala, Tanja 2016. International military operations and mental health – A review. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 70, Issue. 1, p. 10.


    Brown, Monique J. Perera, Robert A. Masho, Saba W. Mezuk, Briana and Cohen, Steven A. 2015. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: Sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation. Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 131, p. 48.


    Call, David Pitcock, Jeffery and Pyne, Jeffrey 2015. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Relationship Between Mindfulness, General Distress, Anxiety, and PTSD in a Recently Deployed National Guard Sample. Mindfulness, Vol. 6, Issue. 6, p. 1303.


    Fernandes, V. and Osório, F.L. 2015. Are there associations between early emotional trauma and anxiety disorders? Evidence from a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. European Psychiatry, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 756.


    Ford, Julian D. Grasso, Damion J. Elhai, Jon D. and Courtois, Christine A. 2015. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.


    Hammond, Kenric W. Ben-Ari, Alon Y. Laundry, Ryan J. Boyko, Edward J. and Samore, Matthew H. 2015. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 28, Issue. 6, p. 505.


    Park, Crystal L. Wachen, Jennifer Schuster Kaiser, Anica Pless and Mager Stellman, Jeanne 2015. Cumulative trauma and midlife well-being in American women who served in Vietnam: effects of combat exposure and postdeployment social support. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 144.


    Borsini, A. Hepgul, N. Mondelli, V. Chalder, T. and Pariante, C. M. 2014. Childhood stressors in the development of fatigue syndromes: a review of the past 20 years of research. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 44, Issue. 09, p. 1809.


    Howell, Kathryn H. and Miller-Graff, Laura E. 2014. Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 38, Issue. 12, p. 1985.


    Kalmakis, Karen A. and Chandler, Genevieve E. 2014. Adverse childhood experiences: towards a clear conceptual meaning. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 70, Issue. 7, p. 1489.


    Khulan, B Manning, J R Dunbar, D R Seckl, J R Raikkonen, K Eriksson, J G and Drake, A J 2014. Epigenomic profiling of men exposed to early-life stress reveals DNA methylation differences in association with current mental state. Translational Psychiatry, Vol. 4, Issue. 9, p. e448.


    Bramoweth, Adam D. and Germain, Anne 2013. Deployment-Related Insomnia in Military Personnel and Veterans. Current Psychiatry Reports, Vol. 15, Issue. 10,


    Brockie, Teresa N. Heinzelmann, Morgan and Gill, Jessica 2013. A Framework to Examine the Role of Epigenetics in Health Disparities among Native Americans. Nursing Research and Practice, Vol. 2013, p. 1.


    Stein, Murray B. and Ursano, Robert J. 2013. SUICIDE AMONG UNITED STATES MILITARY PERSONNEL: DETERMINING THE ROOT CAUSES. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 30, Issue. 10, p. 896.


    ×

Adverse childhood experiences in relation to mood and anxiety disorders in a population-based sample of active military personnel

  • J. Sareen (a1), C. A. Henriksen (a2), S.-L. Bolton (a3), T. O. Afifi (a4), M. B. Stein (a5) and G. J. G. Asmundson (a6)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329171200102X
  • Published online: 21 May 2012
Abstract
Background

Although it has been posited that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases vulnerability to deployment stress, previous literature in this area has demonstrated conflicting results. Using a cross-sectional population-based sample of active military personnel, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs, deployment related stressors and mood and anxiety disorders.

Method

Data were analyzed from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey – Canadian Forces Supplement (CCHS-CFS; n = 8340, age 18–54 years, response rate 81%). The following ACEs were self-reported retrospectively: childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, economic deprivation, exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce/separation, parental substance abuse problems, hospitalization as a child, and apprehension by a child protection service. DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders [major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks/disorder and social phobia] were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).

Results

Even after adjusting for the effects of deployment-related traumatic exposures (DRTEs), exposure to ACEs was significantly associated with past-year mood or anxiety disorder among men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.34, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.73, p < 0.01] and women [aOR 1.37, 99% CI 1.00–1.89, p = 0.01]. Participants exposed to both ACEs and DRTEs had the highest prevalence of past-year mood or anxiety disorder in comparison to those who were exposed to either ACEs alone, DRTEs alone, or no exposure.

Conclusions

ACEs are associated with several mood and anxiety disorders among active military personnel. Intervention strategies to prevent mental health problems should consider the utility of targeting soldiers with exposure to ACEs.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: J. Sareen, M.D., PZ430-771 Bannatyne Ave., Winnipeg, MB, CanadaR3E 3N4. (Email: sareen@cc.umanitoba.ca)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

TO Afifi , BJ Cox , MW Enns , GJG Asmundson , MB Stein , J Sareen (2008). Population attributable fractions of psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences in the general population. American Journal of Public Health 98, 946952.

CR Brewin , B Andrews , JD Valentine (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 748766.

OA Cabrera , CW Hoge , PD Bliese , CA Castro , SC Messer (2007). Childhood adversity and combat as predictors of depression and post-traumatic stress in deployed troops. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 33, 7782.

CP Clancy , A Graybeal , WP Tompson , KS Badgett , ME Feldman , PS Calhoun , A Erkanli , MA Hertzberg , JC Beckham (2006). Lifetime trauma exposure in veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder: association with current symptomatology. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67, 13461353.

BP Dohrenwend , JB Turner , NA Turse , BG Adams , KC Koenen , R Marshall (2006). The psychological risks of Vietnam for U.S. veterans: a revisit with new data and methods. Science 313, 979982.

SR Dube , RF Anda , VJ Felitti , DP Chapman , DF Williamson , WH Giles (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 286, 30893096.

SR Dube , RF Anda , CL Whitfield , DW Brown , VJ Felitti , M Dong , WH Giles (2005). Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 28, 430438.

CC Engel Jr., AL Engel , SJ Campbell , ME McFall , J Russo , W Katon (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and precombat sexual and physical abuse in Desert Storm veterans. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 181, 683688.

VJ Felitti (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and adult health. Academic Pediatrics 9, 131132.

J Hardt , M Rutter (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: review of the evidence. Jounal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45, 260273.

JM Haro , S Arbabzadeh-Bouchez , TS Brugha , G de Girolamo , ME Guyer , R Jin , JP Lepine , F Mazzi , B Reneses , G Vilagut , NA Sampson , RC Kessler (2006). Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 15, 167180.

CW Hoge , CA Castro , SC Messer , D McGurk , DI Cotting , RL Koffman (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine 351, 1322.

M Hotopf , L Hull , NT Fear , T Browne , O Horn , A Iversen , M Jones , D Murphy , D Bland , M Earnshaw , N Greenberg , JH Hughes , AR Tate , C Dandeker , R Rona , S Wessely (2006). The health of UK military personnel who deployed to the 2003 Iraq war: a cohort study. Lancet 367, 17311741.

AC Iversen , NT Fear , E Simonoff , L Hull , O Horn , N Greenberg , M Hotopf , R Rona , S Wessely (2007). Influence of childhood adversity on health among male UK military personnel. Bristish Journal of Psychiatry 191, 506511.

IG Jacobson , MA Ryan , TI Hooper , TC Smith , PJ Amoroso , EJ Boyko , GD Gackstetter , TS Wells , NS Bell (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association 300, 663675.

RC Kessler , J Abelson , O Demler , JI Escobar , M Gibbon , ME Guyer , MJ Howes , R Jin , WA Vega , EE Walters , P Wang , A Zaslavsky , H Zheng (2004). Clinical calibration of DSM-IV diagnoses in the World Mental Health (WMH) version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMHCIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 122139.

RC Kessler , P Berglund , O Demler , R Jin , EE Walters (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 593602.

RC Kessler , KA McLaughlin , JG Green , MJ Gruber , NA Sampson , AM Zaslavsky , S Aguilar-Gaxiola , AO Alhamzawi , J Alonso , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , S Chatterji , G de Girolamo , K Demyttenaere , J Fayyad , S Florescu , G Gal , O Gureje , JM Haro , CY Hu , EG Karam , N Kawakami , S Lee , JP Lepine , J Ormel , J Posada-Villa , R Sagar , A Tsang , TB Ustun , S Vassilev , MC Viana , DR Williams (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry 197, 378385.

DJ Kinley , JR Walker , CS Mackenzie , J Sareen (2011). Panic attacks and panic disorder in a population-based sample of active Canadian military personnel. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72, 6674; quiz 119-120.

KG Lapp , HB Bosworth , JL Strauss , KM Stechuchak , RD Horner , PS Calhoun , KG Meador , S Lipper , MI Butterfield (2005). Lifetime sexual and physical victimization among male veterans. Military Medicine 170, 787790.

PO Michel , T Lundin , G Larsson (2005). Personality disorders in a Swedish peacekeeping unit. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 59, 134138.

J Pagura , MB Stein , JM Bolton , BJ Cox , B Grant , J Sareen (2010). Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in the U.S. population. Journal of Psychiatric Research 44, 11901198.

J Sareen , SL Belik , TO Afifi , GJ Asmundson , BJ Cox , MB Stein (2008). Canadian military personnel's population attributable fractions of mental disorders and mental health service use associated with combat and peacekeeping operations. American Journal of Public Health 98, 21912198.

J Sareen , BJ Cox , TO Afifi , MB Stein , SL Belik , G Meadows , GJ Asmundson (2007). Combat and peacekeeping operations in relation to prevalence of mental disorders and perceived need for mental health care: findings from a large representative sample of military personnel. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 843852.

KM Scott , M Von Korff , MC Angermeyer , C Benjet , R Bruffaerts , G de Girolamo , JM Haro , JP Lepine , J Ormel , J Posada-Villa , H Tachimori , RC Kessler (2011). Association of childhood adversities and early-onset mental disorders with adult-onset chronic physical conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 838844.

AE Seifert , MA Polusny , M Murdoch (2011). The association between childhood physical and sexual abuse and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of U.S. Army soldiers. Military Medicine 176, 176181.

AL Stein , GQ Tran , LM Lund , U Haji , BA Dashevsky , DG Baker (2005). Correlates for posttraumatic stress disorder in Gulf War veterans: a retrospective study of main and moderating effects. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 19, 861876.

CH Warner , GN Appenzeller , JR Parker , CM Warner , CW Hoge (2011). Effectiveness of mental health screening and coordination of in-theater care prior to deployment to Iraq: a cohort study. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 378385.

TK Young (2005). Population Health: Concepts and Methods. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: