Agüero-Torres, H et al. (2002) The impact of somatic and cognitive disorders on the functional status of the elderly. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 55(10), 1007–1012.
Alexopoulos, GS and Abrams, RC (1991) Depression in Alzheimer's disease. Psychiatric Clinics of North America.
Arve, S et al. (1999) Coexistence of lowered mood and cognitive impairment of elderly people in five birth cohorts. Aging (Milan, Italy) 11(2), 90–95.
Anstey, KJ and Low, LF (2004) Normal cognitive changes in aging. Australian Family Physician 33(10), 783.
Bassuk, SS, Berkman, LF and Wypij, D (1998) Depressive symptomatology and incident cognitive decline in an elderly community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry 55(12), 1073–1081.
Bennett, S and Thomas, AJ (2014) Depression and dementia: cause, consequence or coincidence? Maturitas 79(2), 184–190.
Bierman, EJ et al. (2008) Anxiety symptoms and cognitive performance in later life: results from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. Aging and Mental Health 12(4), 517–523.
Borenstein, M et al. (2009) Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brailean, A et al. (2017) Longitudinal associations between late-life depression dimensions and cognitive functioning: a cross-domain latent growth curve analysis. Psychological Medicine 47(4), 690–702.
Brodaty, H et al. (2012) Neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people with and without cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 31(2), 411–420.
Bunce, D et al. (2012) Depression, anxiety and cognition in community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and over. Journal of Psychiatric Research 46(12), 1662–1666.
Butters, MA et al. (2008) Pathways linking late-life depression to persistent cognitive impairment and dementia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 10(3), 345.
Byers, AL and Yaffe, K (2011) Depression and risk of developing dementia. Nature Reviews Neurology 7(6), 323–331.
Chang, SL and Tsai, AC (2015) Gender differences in the longitudinal associations of depressive symptoms and leisure-time physical activity with cognitive decline in ⩾ 57year-old Taiwanese. Preventive Medicine 77, 68–73.
Chen, TY and Chang, HY (2016) Developmental patterns of cognitive function and associated factors among the elderly in Taiwan. Scientific Reports 6, 33486.
Cherbuin, N, Kim, S and Anstey, KJ (2015) Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 5(12), e008853.
Chiao, C and Weng, LJ (2016) Mid-life socioeconomic status, depressive symptomatology and general cognitive status among older adults: inter-relationships and temporal effects. BMC Geriatrics 16(1), 88.
Clark, L, Chamberlain, SR and Sahakian, BJ (2009) Neurocognitive mechanisms in depression: implications for treatment. Annual Review of Neuroscience 32, 57–74.
Da Silva, J et al. (2013) Affective disorders and risk of developing dementia: systematic review. The British Journal of Psychiatry 202(3), 177–186.
Djernes, JK (2006) Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly: a review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 113(5), 372–387.
Dotson, VM, Resnick, SM and Zonderman, AB (2008) Differential association of concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms with cognitive decline in older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 16(4), 318–330.
Downer, B et al. (2016) Effects of comorbid depression and diabetes mellitus on cognitive decline in older Mexican Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 64(1), 109–117.
Dufouil, C et al. (1996) Longitudinal analysis of the association between depressive symptomatology and cognitive deterioration. American Journal of Epidemiology 144(7), 634–641.
Duncan, OD (2014) Introduction to Structural Equation Models. Elsevier, New York.
Egger, M, Davey-Smith, G and Altman, D (eds). (2008) Systematic Reviews in Health Care: Meta-Analysis in Context. John Wiley & Sons, London.
Elm, EV et al. (2007) Policy and practice-The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85(11), 867–872.
Enache, D, Winblad, B and Aarsland, D (2011) Depression in dementia: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 24(6), 461–472.
Esslinger, C et al. (2011) Cognitive state and connectivity effects of the genome-wide significant psychosis variant in ZNF804A. Neuroimage 54(3), 2514–2523.
Fava, M et al. (2000) Anxiety disorders in major depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry 41(2), 97–102.
Field, AP and Gillett, R (2010) How to do a meta-analysis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 63(3), 665–694.
Frasch, K et al. (2000) Do cognitive deficits in depressive disorders remit? Psychiatrische Praxis 27(6), 291–295.
Fried, EI (2017) The 52 symptoms of major depression: lack of content overlap among seven common depression scales. Journal of Affective Disorders 208, 191–197.
Gale, CR, Allerhand, M and Deary, IJ (2012) Is there a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive ability in older people? A prospective study using the English longitudinal study of ageing. Psychological Medicine 42(10), 2057–2069.
Ganguli, M et al. (2006) Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in late life: a prospective epidemiological study. Archives of General Psychiatry 63(2), 153–160.
Geerlings, MI and Gerritsen, L (2017) Late-life depression, hippocampal volumes, and HPA-axis regulation. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry 82, 339–350.
Geerlings, MI et al. (2000) Depression and risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. The British Journal of Psychiatry 176(6), 568–575.
Gill, TM, Hardy, SE and Williams, CS (2002) Underestimation of disability in community-living older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 50(9), 1492–1497.
Gill, TM et al. (1996) Impairments in physical performance and cognitive status as predisposing factors for functional dependence among nondisabled older persons. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 51(6), M283–M288.
Gulpers, B et al. (2016) Anxiety as a predictor for cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 24(10), 823–842.
Han, L et al. (2006) The temporal relationship between depression symptoms and cognitive functioning in older medical patients—prospective or concurrent? The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 61(12), 1319–1323.
Han, L et al. (2008) 12-month cognitive outcomes of major and minor depression in older medical patients. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 16(9), 742–751.
Higgins, JP et al. (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ: British Medical Journal 327(7414), 557.
House of Lords (2013) ‘Ready for Ageing?’ Select Committee on Public Service and Demographic Change. Report of Session 2012–13. HL Paper 140. London: The Stationery Office Limited.
Johnson, LA, Hall, JR and O'Bryant, SE (2013) A depressive endophenotype of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PLoS ONE 8(7), e68848.
Jorm, AF (2001) History of depression as a risk factor for dementia: an updated review. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 35(6), 776–781.
Kaser, M, Zaman, R and Sahakian, BJ (2017) Cognition as a treatment target in depression. Psychological Medicine 47(6), 987–989.
Kavé, G et al. (2008) Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old. Psychology and Aging 23(1), 70.
Kessler, RC et al. (1996) Comorbidity of DSM-III—R major depressive disorder in the general population: Results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. The British journal of psychiatry.
Kim, JO and Ferree, GD Jr (1981) Standardization in causal analysis. Sociological Methods & Research 10(2), 187–210.
Köhler, S et al. (2010) Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 58(5), 873–879.
Light, RJ and Pillemer, DB (1984) Summing up: The science of reviewing research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Lipsey, MW and Wilson, D (2000) Practical Meta-Analysis (applied social research methods). Sage publications, Thousand Oaks California.
Lutz, W, Sanderson, W and Scherbov, S (2008) The coming acceleration of global population ageing. Nature 451(7179), 716–719.
Mendl, M (1999) Performing under pressure: stress and cognitive function. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 65(3), 221–244.
Moher, D et al. and Prisma Group (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine 6(7), e1000097.
Moritz, DJ, Kasl, SV and Berkman, LF (1995) Cognitive functioning and the incidence of limitations in activities of daily living in an elderly community sample. American Journal of Epidemiology 141(1), 41–49.
Morris, JC (2005) Early-stage and preclinical Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 19(3), 163.
Neubauer, AB, Wahl, HW and Bickel, H (2013) Depressive symptoms as predictor of dementia versus continuous cognitive decline: a 3-year prospective study. European Journal of Ageing 10, 37–48.
Niti, M et al. (2009) APOE-ϵ4, depressive symptoms, and cognitive decline in Chinese older adults: Singapore longitudinal aging studies. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 64(2), 306–311.
Nordin, E, Rosendahl, E and Lundin-Olsson, L (2006) Timed “Up & Go” test: reliability in older people dependent in activities of daily living—focus on cognitive state. Physical Therapy 86(5), 646–655.
Oeppen, J and Vaupel, JW (2002) Broken limits to life expectancy. Science 296(5570), 1029–1031.
Ownby, RL et al. (2006) Depression and risk for Alzheimer disease: systematic review, meta-analysis, and metaregression analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 63(5), 530–538.
Paelecke-Habermann, Y, Pohl, J and Leplow, B (2005) Attention and executive functions in remitted major depression patients. Journal of Affective Disorders 89(1), 125–135.
Panza, F et al. (2009) Temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment: the Italian longitudinal study on aging. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 17(4), 899–911.
Panza, F et al. (2010) Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: possible continuum? The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18(2), 98–116.
Paterniti, S et al. (2002) Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in elderly people. The British Journal of Psychiatry 181(5), 406–410.
Rajan, KB et al. (2014) Gene behavior interaction of depressive symptoms and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele on cognitive decline. Psychosomatic Medicine 76(2), 101.
Raji, MA et al. (2007) Depressive symptoms and cognitive change in older Mexican Americans. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 20(3), 145–152.
Reyes-Ortiz, CA et al. (2008) Church attendance mediates the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning among older Mexican Americans. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 63(5), 480–486.
Rosenblatt, A et al. (2003) Major depression and cognitive decline after 11.5 years: findings from the ECA study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191(12), 827–830.
Rovner, BW et al. (1989) Depression and Alzheimer's disease. The American journal of psychiatry 146(3), 350.
Royall, DR and Palmer, RF (2013) Alzheimer's disease pathology does not mediate the association between depressive symptoms and subsequent cognitive decline. Alzheimer's & Dementia 9(3), 318–325.
Royall, DR et al. (2017) Serum proteins mediate depression's association with dementia. PLoS ONE 12(6), e0175790.
Rubin, EH et al. (1998) A prospective study of cognitive function and onset of dementia in cognitively healthy elders. Archives of Neurology 55(3), 395–401.
Sawyer, K et al. (2012) Depression, hippocampal volume changes, and cognitive decline in a clinical sample of older depressed outpatients and non-depressed controls. Aging & Mental Health 16(6), 753–762.
Sinoff, G and Werner, P (2003) Anxiety disorder and accompanying subjective memory loss in the elderly as a predictor of future cognitive decline. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18(10), 951–959.
Sohrabi, MB et al. (2008) Evaluation and comparison of cognitive state and depression in elderly admitted in sanitarium with elderly sited in personal home. Knowledge & Health 3(2), 27–31.
Song, F et al. (2000) Publication and related biases: a review. Health Technology Assessment 4(10), 1–115.
Sperling, RA et al. (2011) Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the national institute on aging-Alzheimer's association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia 7(3), 280–292.
Studio, R (2012) RStudio: Integrated Development Environment for R. Boston, Massachusetts: RStudio Inc.
Tabbarah, M, Crimmins, EM and Seeman, TE (2002) The relationship between cognitive and physical performance: MacArthur studies of successful aging. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 57(4), M228–M235.
Tombaugh, TN and McIntyre, NJ (1992) The mini-mental state examination: a comprehensive review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40(9), 922–935.
Turner, AD et al. (2015) Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in older African Americans: two scales and their factors. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 23(6), 568–578.
Van den Kommer, TN et al. (2013) Depression and cognition: how do they interrelate in old age? The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 21(4), 398–410.
Van Den Noortgate, W and Onghena, P (2003) Multilevel meta-analysis: a comparison with traditional meta-analytical procedures. Educational and Psychological Measurement 63(5), 765–790.
Vinkers, DJ et al. (2004) Temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age: prospective population based study. BMJ 329(7471), 881.
Wang, L et al. (2002) Predictors of functional change: a longitudinal study of nondemented people aged 65 and older. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 50(9), 1525–1534.
Weiland-Fiedler, P et al. (2004) Evidence for continuing neuropsychological impairments in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 82(2), 253–258.
Wilson, RS et al. (2007) Chronic distress and incidence of mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 68(24), 2085–2092.
Wilson, RS et al. (2011) Vulnerability to stress, anxiety, and development of dementia in old age. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 19(4), 327–334.
Wilson, RS et al. (2016) Late-life depression is not associated with dementia-related pathology. Neuropsychology 30(2), 135.
Yaffe, K et al. (1999) Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in nondemented elderly women: a prospective study. Archives of General Psychiatry 56(5), 425–430.
Yerkes, RM and Dodson, JD (1908) The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology 18(5), 459–482.