Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Mogg, Karin and Bradley, Brendan P. 2016. Anxiety and attention to threat: Cognitive mechanisms and treatment with attention bias modification. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 87, p. 76.


    Sussman, Tamara J. Jin, Jingwen and Mohanty, Aprajita 2016. Top-down and bottom-up factors in threat-related perception and attention in anxiety. Biological Psychology,


    Schönenberg, Michael 2013. Hurting Memories and Beneficial Forgetting.


    Suway, J.G. White, L.K. Vanderwert, R.E. Bar-Haim, Y. Pine, D.S. and Fox, N.A. 2013. Modification of threat-processing in non-anxious individuals: A preliminary behavioral and ERP study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 44, Issue. 3, p. 285.


    Shechner, Tomer Britton, Jennifer C. Pérez-Edgar, Koraly Bar-Haim, Yair Ernst, Monique Fox, Nathan A. Leibenluft, Ellen and Pine, Daniel S. 2012. Attention biases, anxiety, and development: toward or away from threats or rewards?. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 282.


    Sipos, Maurice L. Bar-Haim, Yair Abend, Rany Adler, Amy B. and Bliese, Paul D. 2014. POSTDEPLOYMENT THREAT-RELATED ATTENTION BIAS INTERACTS WITH COMBAT EXPOSURE TO ACCOUNT FOR PTSD AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS IN SOLDIERS. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 31, Issue. 2, p. 124.


    Iacoviello, Brian M. Wu, Gang Abend, Rany Murrough, James W. Feder, Adriana Fruchter, Eyal Levinstein, Yoav Wald, Ilan Bailey, Christopher R. Pine, Daniel S. Neumeister, Alexander Bar-Haim, Yair and Charney, Dennis S. 2014. Attention Bias Variability and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 232.


    Cret, Nicoleta 2013. Attention Bias or the Attention Control Ability: Measuring the Role of Attention Bias as a Cause for Anxiety Vulnerability. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 78, p. 240.


    Price, Rebecca B. Allen, Kristy Benoit Silk, Jennifer S. Ladouceur, Cecile D. Ryan, Neal D. Dahl, Ronald E. Forbes, Erika E. and Siegle, Greg J. 2016. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 19, p. 128.


    Hauschildt, Marit Wittekind, Charlotte Moritz, Steffen Kellner, Michael and Jelinek, Lena 2013. Attentional bias for affective visual stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder and the role of depression. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 207, Issue. 1-2, p. 73.


    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J. Grasso, Damion Bar-Haim, Yair Voss, Joel McCarthy, Kimberly J. Pine, Daniel S. and Wakschlag, Lauren S. 2016. Attention bias in the developmental unfolding of post-traumatic stress symptoms in young children at risk. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 57, Issue. 9, p. 1083.


    Morales, Santiago Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E. and Buss, Kristin A. 2015. Attention Biases Towards and Away from Threat Mark the Relation between Early Dysregulated Fear and the Later Emergence of Social Withdrawal. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 43, Issue. 6, p. 1067.


    Wittekind, Charlotte E. Behmer, Friederike Muhtz, Christoph Fritzsche, Anja Moritz, Steffen and Jelinek, Lena 2015. Investigation of automatic avoidance in displaced individuals with chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Psychiatry Research, Vol. 228, Issue. 3, p. 887.


    Shvil, Erel Rusch, Heather L. Sullivan, Gregory M. and Neria, Yuval 2013. Neural, Psychophysiological, and Behavioral Markers of Fear Processing in PTSD: A Review of the Literature. Current Psychiatry Reports, Vol. 15, Issue. 5,


    Enock, Philip M. Hofmann, Stefan G. and McNally, Richard J. 2014. Attention Bias Modification Training Via Smartphone to Reduce Social Anxiety: A Randomized, Controlled Multi-Session Experiment. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 38, Issue. 2, p. 200.


    Armstrong, Thomas Bilsky, Sarah A. Zhao, Mimi and Olatunji, Bunmi O. 2013. DWELLING ON POTENTIAL THREAT CUES: AN EYE MOVEMENT MARKER FOR COMBAT-RELATED PTSD. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 497.


    Wald, I. Fruchter, E. Ginat, K. Stolin, E. Dagan, D. Bliese, P. D. Quartana, P. J. Sipos, M. L. Pine, D. S. and Bar-Haim, Y. 2016. Selective prevention of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder using attention bias modification training: a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 46, Issue. 12, p. 2627.


    Lau, Jennifer Y F Hilbert, Kevin Goodman, Robert Gregory, Alice M Pine, Daniel S Viding, Essi M and Eley, Thalia C 2012. Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 12.


    Naim, R. Wald, I. Lior, A. Pine, D. S. Fox, N. A. Sheppes, G. Halpern, P. and Bar-Haim, Y. 2014. Perturbed threat monitoring following a traumatic event predicts risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 44, Issue. 10, p. 2077.


    Wald, Ilan Bitton, Shani Levi, Ofir Zusmanovich, Sergei Fruchter, Eyal Ginat, Keren Charney, Dennis S. Pine, Daniel S. and Bar-Haim, Yair 2016. Acute delivery of attention bias modification training (ABMT) moderates the association between combat exposure and posttraumatic symptoms: A feasibility study. Biological Psychology,


    ×

Battlefield-like stress following simulated combat and suppression of attention bias to threat

  • I. Wald (a1), G. Lubin (a2), Y. Holoshitz (a3), D. Muller (a3), E. Fruchter (a2), D. S. Pine (a4), D. S. Charney (a3) and Y. Bar-Haim (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710002308
  • Published online: 26 November 2010
Abstract
Background

Acute stress disorder involves prominent symptoms of threat avoidance. Preliminary cross-sectional data suggest that such threat-avoidance symptoms may also manifest cognitively, as attentional threat avoidance. Confirming these findings in a longitudinal study might provide insights on risk prediction and anxiety prevention in traumatic exposures.

Method

Attention-threat bias and post-traumatic symptoms were assessed in soldiers at two points in time: early in basic training and 23 weeks later, during advanced combat training. Based on random assignment, the timing of the repeat assessment occurred in one of two schedules: for a combat simulation group, the repeat assessment occurred immediately following a battlefield simulation exercise, and for a control group, the assessment occurred shortly before this exercise.

Results

Both groups showed no threat-related attention bias at initial assessments. Following acute stress, the combat simulation group exhibited a shift in attention away from threat whereas the control group showed no change in attention bias. Stronger threat avoidance in the combat simulation group correlated with severity of post-traumatic symptoms. Such an association was not found in the control group.

Conclusions

Acute stress may lead some individuals to shift their attention away from threats, perhaps to minimize stress exposure. This acute attention response may come at a psychological cost, given that it correlates with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Further research is needed to determine how these associations relate to full-blown PTSD in soldier and civilian populations.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Y. Bar-Haim, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Israel69978. (Email: yair1@post.tau.ac.il)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

N Amir , C Beard , M Burns , J Bomyea (2009 a). Attention modification program in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118, 2833.

N Amir , C Beard , CT Taylor , H Klumpp , J Elias , M Burns , X Chen (2009 b). Attention training in individuals with generalized social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 77, 961973.

N Amir , RJ McNally , BC Riemann , J Burns , M Lorenz , JT Mullen (1996). Suppression of the emotional Stroop effect by increased anxiety in patients with social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy 34, 945948.

Y Bar-Haim (2010). Attention Bias Modification (ABM): a novel treatment for anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 51, 859870.

Y Bar-Haim , Y Holoshitz , S Eldar , TI Frenkel , D Muller , DS Charney , DS Pine , NA Fox , I Wald (2010). Life-threatening danger and suppression of attention bias to threat. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 694698.

Y Bar-Haim , D Lamy , L Pergamin , MJ Bakermans-Kranenburg , MH van IJzendoorn (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin 133, 124.

EB Blanchard , J Jones-Alexander , TC Buckley , CA Forneris (1996). Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Behaviour Research and Therapy 34, 669673.

JD Bremner , E Brett (1997). Trauma-related dissociative states and long-term psychopathology in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress 10, 3749.

J Briere , C Scott , F Weathers (2005). Peritraumatic and persistent dissociation in the presumed etiology of PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 22952301.

DS Charney (2004). Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 195216.

JI Constans , MS McCloskey , JJ Vasterling , K Brailey , A Mathews (2004). Suppression of attentional bias in PTSD. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 315323.


E Fox , A Ridgewell , C Ashwin (2009). Looking on the bright side: biased attention and the human serotonin transporter gene. Proceedings. Biological Sciences/The Royal Society 276, 17471751.

M Garner , K Mogg , BP Bradley (2006). Orienting and maintenance of gaze to facial expressions in social anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 760770.

KE Habib , PW Gold , GP Chrousos (2001). Neuroendocrinology of stress. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 30, 695728.

Y Hakamata , S Lissek , Y Bar-Haim , JC Britton , NA Fox , E Leibenluft , M Ernst , DS Pine (2010). Attention Bias Modification Treatment: a meta-analysis towards the establishment of novel treatment for anxiety. Biological Psychiatry. Published online: 1 October 2010. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.07.021.

AG Harvey , RA Bryant (1998). The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 66, 507512.

AG Harvey , RA Bryant (2002). Acute stress disorder: a synthesis and critique. Psychological Bulletin 128, 886902.

SM Helfinstein , LK White , Y Bar-Haim , NA Fox (2008). Affective primes suppress attention bias to threat in socially anxious individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy 46, 799810.

G Lensvelt-Mulders , O van der Hart , JM van Ochten , MJM van Son , K Steele , L Breeman (2008). Relations among peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 28, 11381150.

HR Lieberman , GP Bathalon , CM Falco , FM Kramer , CA Morgan , P Niro (2005). Severe decrements in cognition function and mood induced by sleep loss, heat, dehydration, and undernutrition during simulated combat. Biological Psychiatry 57, 422429.

HR Lieberman , JW Castellani , AJ Young (2009). Cognitive function and mood during acute cold stress after extended military training and recovery. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 80, 629636.

HR Lieberman , WJ Tharion , B Shukitt-Hale , KL Speckman , R Tulley (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during US Navy SEAL training. Psychopharmacology 164, 250261.

W Mansell , DM Clark , A Ehlers , YP Chen (1999). Social anxiety and attention away from emotional faces. Cognition & Emotion 13, 673690.

BP Marx , K Brailey , SP Proctor , HZ MacDonald , AC Graefe , P Amoroso , T Heeren , JJ Vasterling (2009). Association of time since deployment, combat intensity, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with neuropsychological outcomes following Iraq war deployment. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 9961004.

A Mathews , S Sebastian (1993). Suppression of emotional Stroop effects by fear-arousal. Cognition & Emotion 7, 517530.

C MacLeod , E Rutherford , L Campbell , G Ebsworthy , L Holker (2002). Selective attention and emotional vulnerability: assessing the causal basis of their association through the experimental manipulation of attentional bias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 107123.

C MacLeod , A Mathews , P Tata (1986). Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95, 1520.

BS McEwen , RM Sapolsky (1995). Stress and cognitive function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 5, 205216.

RJ McNally (2003). Progress and controversy in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder. Annual Review of Psychology 54, 229252.

CS Monk , EE Nelson , EB McClure , K Mogg , BP Bradley , E Leibenluft , RJ Blair , G Chen , DS Charney , M Ernst , DS Pine (2006). Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 10911097.

CS Monk , EH Telzer , K Mogg , BP Bradley , X Mai , HMC Louro , G Chen , EB McClure-Tone , M Ernst , DS Pine (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 568576.

CA Morgan 3rd, A Rasmusson , RH Pietrzak , V Coric , SM Southwick (2009). Relationships among plasma dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cortisol, symptoms of dissociation, and objective performance in humans exposed to underwater navigation stress. Biological Psychiatry 66, 334340.

CA Morgan 3rd, S Southwick , G Hazlett , A Rasmusson , G Hoyt , Z Zimolo , D Charney (2004). Relationships among plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol levels, symptoms of dissociation, and objective performance in humans exposed to acute stress. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 819825.

CA Morgan 3rd, S Wang , SM Southwick , A Rasmusson , G Hazlett , RL Hauger , D Charney (2000). Plasma neuropeptide-Y concentrations in humans exposed to military survival training. Biological Psychiatry 47, 902909.

DA Morilak , G Barrera , DJ Echevarria , AS Garcia , A Hernandez , S Ma , CO Petre (2005). Role of brain norepinephrine in the behavioral response to stress. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 29, 12141224.

K Perez-Edgar , Y Bar-Haim , JM McDermott , E Gorodetsky , CA Hodgkinson , D Goldman , M Ernst , DS Pine , NA Fox (2010). Variations in the serotonin-transporter gene are associated with attention bias patterns to positive and negative emotion faces. Biological Psychology 83, 269271.

DS Pine , SM Helfinstein , Y Bar-Haim , E Nelson , NA Fox (2009). Challenges in developing novel treatments for childhood disorders: lessons from research on anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 213228.

G Pourtois , D Grandjean , D Sander , P Vuilleumier (2004). Electrophysiological correlates of rapid spatial orienting towards fearful faces. Cerebral Cortex 14, 619633.

MD Sauro , RS Jorgensen , CT Pedlow (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: a meta-analytic review. Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 6, 235245.

NB Schmidt , JA Richey , JD Buckner , KR Timpano (2009). Attention training for generalized social anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118, 514.

Z Solomon , M Mikulincer (1992). Aftermaths of combat stress reactions: a three-year study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 31, 2132.

JJ Vasterling , SP Proctor , P Amoroso , R Kane , G Gackstetter , MA Ryan , MJ Friedman (2006 a). The Neurocognition Deployment Health Study: a prospective cohort study of Army Soldiers. Military Medicine 171, 253260.

JJ Vasterling , SP Proctor , P Amoroso , R Kane , T Heeren , RF White (2006 b). Neuropsychological outcomes of army personnel following deployment to the Iraq war. Journal of the American Medical Association 296, 519529.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: