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    Leuchter, A. F. Hunter, A. M. Tartter, M. and Cook, I. A. 2014. Role of pill-taking, expectation and therapeutic alliance in the placebo response in clinical trials for major depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 205, Issue. 6, p. 443.

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Can pharmacotherapists be too supportive? A process study of active medication and placebo in the treatment of depression

  • D. R. Strunk (a1), M. O. Stewart (a2), S. D. Hollon (a2), R. J. DeRubeis (a3), J. Fawcett (a4), J. D. Amsterdam (a5) and R. C. Shelton (a6)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 06 November 2009

This study examined therapist–patient interactions during clinical management with antidepressant medication and pill-placebo.


The sample consisted of 80 patients on active medication and 40 patients in a pill-placebo condition from a randomized controlled trial for moderate to severe depression. Pharmacotherapist–patient interactions were characterized using observer ratings of the therapeutic alliance, pharmacotherapist-offered facilitative conditions, pharmacotherapist adherence to clinical management treatment guidelines and pharmacotherapist competence. Patients, therapists and raters were blind to treatment condition and outcome.


Provision of greater non-specific support (facilitative conditions) in early sessions predicted less subsequent improvement in depressive symptoms for patients receiving pill-placebo but not those receiving active medications, for which none of the process ratings predicted subsequent change. Early symptom change predicted later alliance and adherence in both conditions and therapist competence in the active condition.


Higher levels of support in early sessions predict poorer subsequent response among placebo patients. It remains unclear whether patients who are likely to be refractory elicit greater non-specific support or whether the provision of such support has a deleterious effect in unmedicated patients. Differences in treatment process variables between conditions late in treatment are likely to be largely a consequence of symptom relief produced by active medications.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr D. R. Strunk, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH43210, USA. (Email:
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Psychological Medicine
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