Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kemp, Andrew H. Quintana, Daniel S. Quinn, Candice R. Hopkinson, Patrick and Harris, Anthony W. F. 2014. Major depressive disorder with melancholia displays robust alterations in resting state heart rate and its variability: implications for future morbidity and mortality. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5,


    Forkmann, Thomas Meessen, Judith Teismann, Tobias Sütterlin, Stefan Gauggel, Siegfried and Mainz, Verena 2016. Resting vagal tone is negatively associated with suicide ideation. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 194, p. 30.


    Michal, Matthias Subic-Wrana, Claudia and Beutel, Manfred E. 2014. Psychodynamische Psychotherapie, Lebensstil und Prävention. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, Vol. 60, Issue. 4, p. 350.


    Rabiee, Rynaz Agardh, Emilie Kjellberg, Katarina and Falkstedt, Daniel 2015. Low cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood and future risk of disability pension: a follow-up study until 59 years of age in Swedish men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 69, Issue. 3, p. 266.


    Danielsson, Anna-Karin Agardh, Emilie Hemmingsson, Tomas Allebeck, Peter and Falkstedt, Daniel 2014. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk of future disability pension: A 39-year longitudinal cohort study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 143, p. 239.


    Hagström, Hannes Stål, Per Hultcrantz, Rolf Hemmingsson, Tomas and Andreasson, Anna 2016. Overweight in late adolescence predicts development of severe liver disease later in life: A 39years follow-up study. Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 65, Issue. 2, p. 363.


    ×

Cardiovascular fitness in early adulthood and future suicidal behaviour in men followed for up to 42 years

  • M. A. I. Åberg (a1) (a2), J. Nyberg (a1), K. Torén (a3), A. Sörberg (a4), H. G. Kuhn (a1) and M. Waern (a5)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713001207
  • Published online: 06 June 2013
Abstract
Background

Cardiovascular fitness influences many aspects of brain function. However, the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and suicidal behaviour is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether cardiovascular fitness at age 18 years is associated with future risk of suicide attempt/death.

Method

We performed a population-based Swedish longitudinal cohort study of male conscripts with no previous or ongoing mental illness (n = 1 136 527). The conscription examination, which took place during 1968–2005, included the cycle ergonometric test and tests of cognitive performance. Future risk of suicide attempt/death over a 5- to 42-year follow-up period was calculated with Cox proportional hazards models controlling for several confounders including familial factors.

Results

At least one suicide attempt was recorded for 12 563 men. Death by suicide without a prior attempt was recorded in 4814 additional individuals. In fully adjusted models low cardiovascular fitness was associated with increased risk for future attempt/death by suicide [hazard ratio (HR) 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64–1.94]. The HR changed only marginally after exclusion of persons who received in-patient care for depression (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.61–1.94). Poor performance on both the cardiovascular fitness and cognitive tests was associated with a fivefold increased risk of suicide attempt or suicide death (HR 5.46, 95% CI 4.78–6.24).

Conclusions

Lower cardiovascular fitness at age 18 years was, after adjustment for a number of potential confounders, associated with an increased risk of attempt/death by suicide in adulthood. It remains to be clarified whether interventions designed to improve fitness in teens can influence the risk of suicidal behaviour later in life.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: M. Waern, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Blå Stråket 15, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Email: margda.waern@neuro.gu.se)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

MAÅberg , NLPedersen , KTorén , MSvartengren , BBäckstrand , TJohnsson , CMCooper-Kuhn , NDÅberg , MNilsson , HGKuhn (2009). Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106, 2090620911.

MA Åberg , M Waern , J Nyberg , NL Pedersen , Y Bergh , ND Åberg , M Nilsson , HG Kuhn , K Torén (2012). Cardiovascular fitness in males at age 18 and risk of serious depression in adulthood: Swedish prospective population-based study. British Journal of Psychiatry 201, 352359.

AR Andres , S Collings , P Qin (2010). Sex-specific impact of socio-economic factors on suicide risk: a population-based case–control study in Denmark. European Journal of Public Health 20, 265270.

LA Babiss , JE Gangwisch (2009). Sports participation as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents as mediated by self-esteem and social support. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 30, 376384.

GD Batty , E Whitley , IJ Deary , CR Gale , P Tynelius , F Rasmussen (2010 a). Psychosis alters association between IQ and future risk of attempted suicide: cohort study of 1,109,475 Swedish men. British Medical Journal 340, c2506.

GDBatty , EWhitley , MKivimaki , PTynelius , FRasmussen (2010 b). Body mass index and attempted suicide: cohort study of 1,133,019 Swedish men. American Journal of Epidemiology 172, 890899.

DR Brown , CJ Blanton (2002). Physical activity, sports participation, and suicidal behavior among college students. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 34, 10871096.

J Brown , CM Cooper-Kuhn , G Kempermann , H van Praag , J Winkler , FH Gage , HG Kuhn (2003). Enriched environment and physical activity stimulate hippocampal but not olfactory bulb neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience 17, 20422046.

R Bruffaerts , K Demyttenaere , G Borges , JM Haro , WT Chiu , I Hwang , EG Karam , RC Kessler , N Sampson , J Alonso , LH Andrade , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , G de Girolamo , R de Graaf , S Florescu , O Gureje , I Horiguchi , C Hu , V Kovess , D Levinson , J Posada-Villa , R Sagar , K Scott , A Tsang , SM Vassilev , DR Williams , MK Nock (2010). Childhood adversities as risk factors for onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour. British Journal of Psychiatry 197, 2027.

WHCoryell (2006). Clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressive disorder. CNS Spectrums 11, 455461.

P de Jonge , AM Roest (2012). Depression and cardiovascular disease: the end of simple models. British Journal of Psychiatry 201, 337338.

RD Gibbons , CH Brown , K Hur , J Davis , JJ Mann (2012). Suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant treatment: reanalysis of the randomized placebo-controlled studies of fluoxetine and venlafaxine. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 580587.

JL Gradus , P Qin , AK Lincoln , M Miller , E Lawler , HT Sorensen , TL Lash (2010). Inflammatory bowel disease and completed suicide in Danish adults. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 16, 21582161.

EWGriffin , SMullally , CFoley , SAWarmington , SMO'Mara , AMKelly (2011). Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males. Physiology and Behavior 104, 934941.

D Gunnell , PK Magnusson , F Rasmussen (2005). Low intelligence test scores in 18 year old men and risk of suicide: cohort study. British Medical Journal 330, 167.

SB Harvey , M Hotopf , S Overland , A Mykletun (2010). Physical activity and common mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 197, 357364.

IM Hunt , N Kapur , J Robinson , J Shaw , S Flynn , H Bailey , J Meehan , H Bickley , R Parsons , J Burns , T Amos , L Appleby (2006). Suicide within 12 months of mental health service contact in different age and diagnostic groups. National clinical survey. British Journal of Psychiatry 188, 135142.

GXJiang , FRasmussen , DWasserman (1999). Short stature and poor psychological performance: risk factors for attempted suicide among Swedish male conscripts. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 100, 433440.

WSKendal , WMKendal (2012). Comparative risk factors for accidental and suicidal death in cancer patients. Crisis 33, 325334.

K Kinoshita , Y Kinoshita , S Shimodera , A Nishida , K Inoue , N Watanabe , N Oshima , T Akechi , T Sasaki , S Inoue , TA Furukawa , Y Okazaki (2012). Not only body weight perception but also body mass index is relevant to suicidal ideation and self-harming behavior in Japanese adolescents. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 200, 305309.

AC Leon , RA Friedman , JA Sweeney , RP Brown , JJ Mann (1990). Statistical issues in the identification of risk factors for suicidal behavior: the application of survival analysis. Psychiatry Research 31, 99108.

PK Magnusson , F Rasmussen , DA Lawlor , P Tynelius , D Gunnell (2006). Association of body mass index with suicide mortality: a prospective cohort study of more than one million men. American Journal of Epidemiology 163, 18.

TNiederkrotenthaler , BFloderus , KAlexanderson , FRasmussen , EMittendorfer-Rutz (2012). Exposure to parental mortality and markers of morbidity, and the risks of attempted and completed suicide in offspring: an analysis of sensitive life periods. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 66, 233239.

J Nithianantharajah , AJ Hannan (2009). The neurobiology of brain and cognitive reserve: mental and physical activity as modulators of brain disorders. Progress in Neurobiology 89, 369382.

MKNock , GBorges , EJBromet , CBCha , RCKessler , SLee (2008). Suicide and suicidal behavior. Epidemiologic Reviews 30, 133154.

K Pahkala , M Hernelahti , OJ Heinonen , P Raittinen , M Hakanen , H Lagstrom , JS Viikari , T Ronnemaa , OT Raitakari , O Simell (2013). Body mass index, fitness and physical activity from childhood through adolescence. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47, 7177.

P Qin (2011). The impact of psychiatric illness on suicide: differences by diagnosis of disorders and by sex and age of subjects. Journal of Psychiatric Research 45, 14451452.


A Sourander , AB Klomek , S Niemela , A Haavisto , D Gyllenberg , H Helenius , L Sillanmaki , T Ristkari , K Kumpulainen , T Tamminen , I Moilanen , J Piha , F Almqvist , MS Gould (2009). Childhood predictors of completed and severe suicide attempts: findings from the Finnish 1981 Birth Cohort Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 398406.

WJ Strawbridge , S Deleger , RE Roberts , GA Kaplan (2002). Physical activity reduces the risk of subsequent depression for older adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 156, 328334.


D Wasserman , J Wasserman , M Sokolowski (2010). Genetics of HPA-axis, depression and suicidality. European Psychiatry 25, 278280.

EWhitley , FRasmussen , PTynelius , GDBatty (2010). Physical stature and method-specific attempted suicide: cohort study of one million men. Psychiatry Research 179, 116118.

SYYau , BWLau , KFSo (2011). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: a possible way how physical exercise counteracts stress. Cell Transplantation 20, 99111.

K Yoshimasu , C Kiyohara , K Miyashita (2008). Suicidal risk factors and completed suicide: meta-analyses based on psychological autopsy studies. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 13, 243256.

HZheng , YLiu , WLi , BYang , DChen , XWang , ZJiang , HWang , ZWang , GCornelisson , FHalberg (2006). Beneficial effects of exercise and its molecular mechanisms on depression in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 168, 4755.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary Materials

Åberg Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Unknown (39 KB)
39 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary Materials

Åberg Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Unknown (48 KB)
48 KB