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Cognitive profiles in childhood and adolescence differ between adult psychotic and affective symptoms: a prospective birth cohort study

  • S. Koike (a1) (a2) (a3), J. Barnett (a4) (a5), P. B. Jones (a4) (a6) and M. Richards (a1)
Abstract
Background

Differences between verbal and non-verbal cognitive development from childhood to adulthood may differentiate between those with and without psychotic symptoms and affective symptoms in later life. However, there has been no study exploring this in a population-based cohort.

Method

The sample was drawn from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, and consisted of 2384 study members with self-reported psychotic experiences and affective symptoms at the age of 53 years, and with complete cognitive data at the ages of 8 and 15 years. The association between verbal and non-verbal cognition at age 8 years and relative developmental lag from age 8 to 15 years, and both adult outcomes were tested with the covariates adjusted, and mutually adjusted for verbal and non-verbal cognition.

Results

Those with psychotic experiences [thought interference (n = 433), strange experience (n = 296), hallucination (n = 88)] had lower cognition at both the ages of 8 and 15 years in both verbal and non-verbal domains. After mutual adjustment, lower verbal cognition at age 8 years and greater verbal developmental lag were associated with higher likelihood of psychotic experiences within individuals, whereas there was no association between non-verbal cognition and any psychotic experience. In contrast, those with case-level affective symptoms (n = 453) had lower non-verbal cognition at age 15 years, and greater developmental lag in the non-verbal domain. After adjustment, lower non-verbal cognition at age 8 years and greater non-verbal developmental lag were associated with higher risk of case-level affective symptoms within individuals.

Conclusions

These results suggest that cognitive profiles in childhood and adolescence differentiate psychiatric disease spectra.

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: S. Koike, M.D., Ph.D., Center for Evolutionary Cognitive Sciences, Graduate School of Art and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan. (Email: skoike-tky@umin.ac.jp)
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