Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Young, Gerald 2016. Unifying Causality and Psychology.


    Young, Gerald 2016. Unifying Causality and Psychology.


    Young, Gerald 2015. Dimensions and Dissociation in PTSD in the DSM-5: Towards Eight Core Symptoms. Psychological Injury and Law, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 219.


    Wang, Weiwen Deng, Huihua Wang, Li Cao, Chengqi Xu, Hang and Zhang, Jianxin 2015. Hair cortisone level is associated with PTSD׳s dysphoric arousal symptoms in highly traumatized Chinese females. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 182, p. 18.


    Liu, Ping Wang, Li Cao, Chengqi Wang, Richu Zhang, Jianxin Zhang, Biao Wu, Qi Zhang, Hong Zhao, Zhihong Fan, Gaolin and Elhai, Jon D. 2014. The underlying dimensions of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in an epidemiological sample of Chinese earthquake survivors. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 345.


    Ruderman, Lital Ehrlich, Daniel B. Roy, Alicia Pietrzak, Robert H. Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan and Levy, Ifat 2016. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS AND AVERSION TO AMBIGUOUS LOSSES IN COMBAT VETERANS. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 33, Issue. 7, p. 606.


    Wang, Li Zhang, Lingmin Armour, Cherie Cao, Chengqi Qing, Yulan Zhang, Jianxin Liu, Ping Zhang, Biao Wu, Qi Zhao, Zhihong and Fan, Gaolin 2015. Assessing the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in Chinese adolescents surviving the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 31, p. 90.


    Sumner, Jennifer A. Pietrzak, Robert H. Danielson, Carla Kmett Adams, Zachary W. and Ruggiero, Kenneth J. 2014. Elucidating dimensions of posttraumatic stress symptoms and their functional correlates in disaster-exposed adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 59, p. 85.


    Carragher, Natacha Sunderland, Matthew Batterham, Philip J. Calear, Alison L. Elhai, Jon D. Chapman, Catherine and Mills, Katherine 2016. Discriminant validity and gender differences in DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 190, p. 56.


    Pietrzak, Robert H Huang, Yiyun Corsi-Travali, Stefani Zheng, Ming-Qiang Lin, Shu-fei Henry, Shannan Potenza, Marc N Piomelli, Daniele Carson, Richard E and Neumeister, Alexander 2014. Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor Availability in the Amygdala Mediates Threat Processing in Trauma Survivors. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 39, Issue. 11, p. 2519.


    Cao, Xing Wang, Li Cao, Chengqi Zhang, Jianxin and Elhai, Jon D. 2016. DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Disaster-Exposed Adolescents: Stability across Gender and Relation to Behavioral Problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,


    Ragen, Benjamin J Seidel, Jordan Chollak, Christine Pietrzak, Robert H and Neumeister, Alexander 2015. Investigational drugs under development for the treatment of PTSD. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, Vol. 24, Issue. 5, p. 659.


    Horn, Sarah R. Pietrzak, Robert H. Schechter, Clyde Bromet, Evelyn J. Katz, Craig L. Reissman, Dori B. Kotov, Roman Crane, Michael Harrison, Denise J. Herbert, Robin Luft, Benjamin J. Moline, Jacqueline M. Stellman, Jeanne M. Udasin, Iris G. Landrigan, Philip J. Zvolensky, Michael J. Southwick, Steven M. and Feder, Adriana 2016. Latent typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder in World Trade Center responders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 83, p. 151.


    Armour, Cherie Műllerová, Jana and Elhai, Jon D. 2016. A systematic literature review of PTSD's latent structure in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV to DSM-5. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 44, p. 60.


    Solberg, Ø. Birkeland, M. S. Blix, I. Hansen, M. B. and Heir, T. 2016. Towards an exposure-dependent model of post-traumatic stress: longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing. Psychological Medicine, p. 1.


    Liu, Liyong Wang, Li Cao, Chengqi Qing, Yulan and Armour, Cherie 2016. Testing the dimensional structure ofDSM-5posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a nonclinical trauma-exposed adolescent sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 57, Issue. 2, p. 204.


    ×

Dimensional structure and course of post-traumatic stress symptomatology in World Trade Center responders

  • R. H. Pietrzak (a1) (a2), A. Feder (a3), C. B. Schechter (a4), R. Singh (a3), L. Cancelmo (a3), E. J. Bromet (a5), C. L. Katz (a3), D. B. Reissman (a6), F. Ozbay (a3), V. Sharma (a3), M. Crane (a7), D. Harrison (a8), R. Herbert (a7), S. M. Levin (a7), B. J. Luft (a9), J. M. Moline (a10), J. M. Stellman (a11), I. G. Udasin (a12), R. El-Gabalawy (a13), P. J. Landrigan (a7) and S. M. Southwick (a1) (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713002924
  • Published online: 02 December 2013
Abstract
Background

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11) is one of the most prevalent and persistent health conditions among both professional (e.g. police) and non-traditional (e.g. construction worker) WTC responders, even several years after 9/11. However, little is known about the dimensionality and natural course of WTC-related PTSD symptomatology in these populations.

Method

Data were analysed from 10 835 WTC responders, including 4035 police and 6800 non-traditional responders who were evaluated as part of the WTC Health Program, a clinic network in the New York area established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate structural models of PTSD symptom dimensionality; and autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) panel regressions were used to examine the prospective interrelationships among PTSD symptom clusters at 3, 6 and 8 years after 9/11.

Results

CFAs suggested that five stable symptom clusters best represent PTSD symptom dimensionality in both police and non-traditional WTC responders. This five-factor model was also invariant over time with respect to factor loadings and structural parameters, thereby demonstrating its longitudinal stability. ARCL panel regression analyses revealed that hyperarousal symptoms had a prominent role in predicting other symptom clusters of PTSD, with anxious arousal symptoms primarily driving re-experiencing symptoms, and dysphoric arousal symptoms primarily driving emotional numbing symptoms over time.

Conclusions

Results of this study suggest that disaster-related PTSD symptomatology in WTC responders is best represented by five symptom dimensions. Anxious arousal symptoms, which are characterized by hypervigilance and exaggerated startle, may primarily drive re-experiencing symptoms, while dysphoric arousal symptoms, which are characterized by sleep disturbance, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties, may primarily drive emotional numbing symptoms over time. These results underscore the importance of assessment, monitoring and early intervention of hyperarousal symptoms in WTC and other disaster responders.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: R. H. Pietrzak, Ph.D., M.P.H., National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, Yale University School of Medicine, 950 Campbell Avenue 151E, West Haven, CT, 06516,USA. (Email: robert.pietrzak@yale.edu)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

C Armour , N Carragher , JD Elhai (2013 a). Assessing the fit of the dysphoric arousal model across two nationally representative epidemiological surveys: The Australian NSMHWB and the United States NESARC. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 27, 109115.

C Armour , JD Elhai , D Richardson , K Ractliffe , L Wang , A Elklit (2012). Assessing a five factor model of PTSD: is dysphoric arousal a unique PTSD construct showing differential relationships with anxiety and depression? Journal of Anxiety Disorders 26, 368376.

C Armour , S Raudzah Ghazali , A Elklit (2013 b). PTSD's latent structure in Malaysian tsunami victims: assessing the newly proposed dysphoric arousal model. Psychiatry Research 206, 2632.

RM Bowler , H Han , V Gocheva , S Nakagawa , H Alper , L DiGrande , JE Cone (2010). Gender differences in probable posttraumatic stress disorder among police responders to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53, 11861196.

RA Bryant , AG Harvey , RM Guthrie , ML Moulds (2003). Acute psychophysiological arousal and posttraumatic stress disorder: a two-year prospective study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 16, 439443.

M Creamer , P Burgess , P Pattison (1992). Reaction to trauma: a cognitive processing model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 101, 452459.

J Cukor , K Wyka , N Jayasinghe , F Weathers , C Giosan , P Leck , J Roberts , L Spielman , M Crane , J Difede (2011). Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in utility workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Depression and Anxiety 28, 210217.

JD Elhai , TL Biehn , C Armour , JJ Klopper , BC Frueh , PA Palmieri (2011). Evidence for a unique PTSD construct represented by PTSD's D1–D3 symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 25, 340345.

JD Elhai , CM Layne , AM Steinberg , MJ Brymer , EC Briggs , SA Ostrowski , RS Pynoos (2013). Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index. part II: investigating factor structure findings in a national clinic-referred youth sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress 26, 1018.

JD Elhai , PA Palmieri (2011). The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder: a literature update, critique of methodology, and agenda for future research. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 25, 849854.

X Fan , SA Sivo (2009). Using goodness-of-fit indexes in assessing mean structure invariance. Structural Equation Modeling 16, 5467.

DE Hinton , SG Hofmann , MH Pollack , MW Otto (2009). Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics 15, 255263.

EA Hoge , JJ Worthington , JT Nagurney , Y Chang , EB Kay , CM Feterowski , AR Katzman , JM Goetz , ML Rosasco , NB Lasko , RM Zusman , MH Pollack , SP Orr , RK Pitman (2012). Effect of acute posttrauma propranolol on PTSD outcome and physiological responses during script-driven imagery. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics 18, 2127.

L Hu , PM Bentler (1998). Fit indices in covariance structural modeling: sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods 3, 424453.

L Hu , PM Bentler (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling 6, 155.

DW King , GA Leskin , LA King , FW Weathers (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: evidence for the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment 10, 9096.

JW Lawrence , J Fauerbach , A Munster (1996). Early avoidance of traumatic stimuli predicts chronicity of intrusive thoughts following burn injury. Behaviour Research and Therapy 34, 643646.

GA Leskin , DG Kaloupek , TM Keane (1998). Treatment for traumatic memories: review and recommendations. Clinical Psychology Review 18, 9831001.

A Macdonald , CM Monson , S Doron-Lamarca , PA Resick , TP Palfai (2011). Identifying patterns of symptom change during a randomized controlled trial of cognitive processing therapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress 24, 268276.

LS Malta , KE Wyka , C Giosan , N Jayasinghe , J Difede (2009). Numbing symptoms as predictors of unremitting posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 23, 223229.

GN Marshall , TL Schell , SM Glynn , V Shetty (2006). The role of hyperarousal in the manifestation of posttraumatic psychological distress following injury. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 624628.

GN Marshall , TL Schell , JNV Miles (2013). A multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis of PTSD symptoms: what exactly is wrong with the DSM-IV structure? Clinical Psychology Review 33, 5466.

L Mayer , S Carrol (1987). Testing for lagged, cotemporal and total dependence in cross-lagged panel analysis. Sociological Methods and Research 16, 187217.

RDV Nixon , T Nehmy , M Seymour (2007). The effect of cognitive load and hyperarousal on negative intrusive memories. Behaviour Research and Therapy 45, 26522663.

PA Palmieri , FW Weathers , J Difede , DW King (2007). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PTSD Checklist and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale in disaster workers exposed to the World Trade Center Ground Zero. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 329341.

MA Perrin , L DiGrande , K Wheeler , L Thorpe , M Farfel , R Brackbill (2007). Differences in PTSD prevalence and associated risk factors among World Trade Center disaster rescue and recovery workers. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 13851394.

RH Pietrzak , S Galea , SM Southwick , J Gelernter (2013 b). Examining the relation between the serotonin transporter 5-HTTPLR genotype x trauma exposure interaction on a contemporary phenotypic model of posttraumatic stress symptomatology: a pilot study. Journal of Affective Disorders 148, 123128.

RH Pietrzak , JD Gallezot , YS Ding , S Henry , MN Potenza , SM Southwick , JH Krystal , RE Carson , A Neumeister (2013 c). Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with reduced in vivo norepinephrine transporter density in locus coeruleus. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 11991205.

RH Pietrzak , S Henry , SM Southwick , JH Krystal , A Neumeister (2013 d). Linking in vivo brain serotonin type 1B receptor density to phenotypic heterogeneity of posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Molecular Psychiatry 18, 399401.

RH Pietrzak , CB Schechter , EJ Bromet , CL Katz , DB Reissman , F Ozbay , V Sharma , M Crane , D Harrison , R Herbert , SM Levin , BJ Luft , JM Moline , JM Stellman , IG Udasin , PJ Landrigan , SM Southwick (2012 a). The burden of full and subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder among police involved in the World Trade Center rescue and recovery effort. Journal of Psychiatric Research 46, 835842.

RH Pietrzak , J Tsai , I Harpaz-Rotem , JM Whealin , SM Southwick (2012 b). Support for a novel five-factor model of posttraumatic stress symptoms in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans: a confirmatory factor analytic study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 46, 317322.

RK Pitman , DL Delahanty (2005). Conceptually driven pharmacologic approaches to acute trauma. CNS Spectrums 10, 99106.

S Rabe , D Dörfel , T Zöllner , A Maercker , A Karl (2006). Cardiovascular correlates of motor vehicle accident related posttraumatic stress disorder and its successful treatment. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 31, 315330.

AE Raftery (1995). Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociological Methodology 25, 111163.

MK Reddy , BJ Anderson , J Liebschutz , MD Stein (2013). Factor structure of PTSD symptoms in opioid-dependent patients rating their overall trauma history. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 132, 597602.

CJ Ruggero , R Kotov , JL Callahan , JN Kilmer , BJ Luft , EJ Bromet (2013). PTSD symptom dimensions and their relationship to functioning in World Trade Center responders. Psychiatry Research. Published online: 21092013. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.08.052.

A Satorra , PM Bentler (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika 66, 507514.

TL Schell , GN Marshall , LH Jaycox (2004). All symptoms are not created equal: the prominent role of hyperarousal in the natural course of posttraumatic psychological distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 189197.

G Schwarz (1978). Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics 6, 461464.

LJ Simms , D Watson , BN Doebbeling (2002). Confirmatory factor analyses of posttraumatic stress symptoms in deployed and nondeployed veterans of the Gulf War. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 637647.

Z Solomon , D Horesh , T Ein-Dor (2009). The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters among war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70, 837843.

JM Stellman , RP Smith , CL Katz , V Sharma , DS Charney , R Herbert , J Moline , BJ Luft , S Markowitz , I Udasin , D Harrison , S Baron , PJ Landrigan , SM Levin , S Southwick (2008). Enduring mental health morbidity and social function impairment in World Trade Center rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers: the psychological dimension of an environmental health disaster. Environmental Health Perspectives 116, 12481253.

JR Strawn , TDJ Geracioti (2008). Noradrenergic dysfunction and the psychopharmacology of posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety 25, 260271.

KE Thompson , JJ Vasterling , EG Benotsch , K Brailey , J Constans , M Uddo , PB Sutker (2004). Early symptom predictors of chronic distress in Gulf War veterans. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 192, 146152.

G Vaiva , F Ducrocq , K Jezequel , B Averland , P Lestavel , A Brunet , CR Marmar (2003). Immediate treatment with propranolol decreases posttraumatic stress disorder two months after trauma. Biological Psychiatry 54, 947949.

L Wang , Z Li , Z Shi , J Zhang , K Zhang , Z Liu , JD Elhai (2011 a). Testing the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress responses in young Chinese adult earthquake survivors: further evidence for ‘dysphoric arousal’ as a unique PTSD construct. Depression and Anxiety 28, 10971104.

L Wang , J Zhang , Z Shi , M Zhou , Z Li , K Zhang , Z Liu , JD Elhai (2011 b). Comparing alternative factor models of PTSD symptoms across earthquake victims and violent riot witnesses in China: evidence for a five-factor model proposed by Elhai et al (2011). Journal of Anxiety Disorders 25, 771776.

M Wang , C Armour , X Li , X Dai , X Zhu , S Yao (2013 a). The factorial invariance across gender of three well-supported models: further evidence for a five-factor model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 201, 145152.

PS Wang , M Lane , M Olfson , HA Pincus , KB Wells , RC Kessler (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 629640.

R Wang , L Wang , Z Li , C Cao , Z Shi , J Zhang (2013 b). Latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in an adolescent sample one month after an earthquake. Journal of Adolescence 36, 717725.

D Watson (2005). Rethinking the mood and anxiety disorders: a quantitative hierarchical model for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 522536.

MP Webber , MS Glaser , J Weakley , J Soo , F Ye , R Zeig-Owens , MD Weiden , A Nolan , TK Aldrich , K Kelly , D Prezant (2013). Physician-diagnosed respiratory conditions and mental health symptoms 7–9 years following the World Trade Center disaster. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 54, 661671.

JP Wisnivesky , S Teitelbaum , A Todd , P Boffetta , M Crane , C Dellenbaugh , D Harrison , R Herbert , Y Jeon , J Kaplan , S Levin , B Luft , S Markowitz , J Moline , RH Pietrzak , M Shapiro , SM Southwick , L Stevenson , I Udasin , S Wallenstein , P Landrigan (2011). Long persistence of multiple illnesses in September 11 responders. Lancet 378, 888897.

T Yufik , LJ Simms (2010). A meta-analytic investigation of the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 119, 764776.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary Materials

Pietrzak et al. Supplementary Material
Table S1

 Unknown (13 KB)
13 KB