Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Affective disorders in five United States communities

  • Myrna M. Weissman (a1), Philip J. Leaf (a1), Gary L. Tischler (a1), Dan G. Blazer (a1), Marvin Karno (a1), Martha Livingston Bruce (a1) and Louis P. Florio (a1)...
Abstract
Synopsis

Results on the age/sex specific prevalence of DSM-III affective disorders from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA), a probability sample of over 18000 adults from five United States communities, are presented. The cross-site means for bipolar disorder ranged from 0·7/100 (2 weeks) to 1–2/100 (lifetime), with a mean age of onset of 21 years and no sex difference in rates. The cross-site means for major depression ranged from 1·5/100 (2 weeks) to 4·4/ 100 (lifetime), with a mean age of onset of 27 years and higher rates in women. The cross-site means for dysthymia, a chronic condition, was 3·1/100 with a higher rate in women. There was reasonable consistency in prevalence rates among sites. The implications of these findings for understanding psychopathology are discussed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Address for correspondence. Dr Myrna M. Weissman, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 722 West 168th St – Box 14, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Angst & A. Dobler-Mikola (1984). The Zurich Study: III. Diagnosis of depression. European Archives of Psychiatric Neurological Sciences 234, 3037.

J. Angst , A. Dobler-Mikola & J. Binder (1984). The Zurich Study – A prospective epidemiological study of depressive, neurotic and psychosomatic syndromes: I. Problem methodology. European Archives of Psychiatric Neurological Sciences 234, 1320.

J. C Anthony , M. Folstein , A. J. Romanoski , M. R. Von Korff , G. R. Nestadt , R. Chahal , A. Merchant , C. H. Brown , S. Shapiro , M. Kramer & E. M. Gruenberg (1985). Comparison of the lay Diagnostic Interview Schedule and a standardized psychiatric diagnosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 667675.

D. Blazer , L. K. George , R. Landerman , M. Pennybacker , M. L. Melville , M. Woodbury , K. G. Manton , K. Jordan & B. Locke (1985). Psychiatric disorders: a rural urban comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 651656.

J. H. Boyd & M M Weissman (1981). Epidemiology of affective disorders' a reexamination and future directions. Archives of General Psychiatry 38, 10391046.

C. Dean , P. G. Surtees , & S. P. Sashidharan (1983). Comparison of research diagnostic systems in an Edinburgh community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry 142, 247256.

W. W. Eaton & L. G. Kessler (eds). (1985) Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Academic Press: New York.

W. W. Eaton , C. E. Holzer III, M. VonKorff , J. C. Anthony , J. E. Helzer , L. George , M. A. Burnam , J. H. Boyd , L. G. Kessler & B. Z. Locke (1984). The design of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys: the control and measurement of error. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 942948.

E. S. Gershon , J. Hamovit , J. J. Guroff , E. Dibble , J. F. Leckman , W. Sceery , S. D. Targum , J I. Nurnberger , L. R. Goldin & W. E. Bunney Jr. (1982). A family study of schizoaffective, bipolar I, bipolar II, unipolar and normal control probands. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 11571167.

J. E. Helzer , L. N. Robins , L. T. McEvoy , E. L. Spitznagel , R. K. Stoltzman , A. Farmer & I. F. Brockington (1985). A comparison of clinical and diagnostic interview schedule diagnoses. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 657666.

R. M. A. Hirschfeld & C. K. Cross (1982). Epidemiology of affective disorders. Archives of.General Psychiatry 39, 3546.

D. Holt & T. M. F Smith (1979). Postratification. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, 142, 3366.

C. E. Holzer , E. Spitznagel , K. B. Jordan , D. M. Timbers , L. G. Kessler & J C. Anthony (1985). Sampling the household population. In Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program (ed. W. W. Eaton and L. G. Kessler ), pp. 2348. Academic Press: New York

G. L. Klerman (1985) Diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in epidemiologic field studies. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 723724.

L. Kessler , R. Folsom , R. Royall , A. Forsythe , L. McEvoy , C. E. Holzer , D. Rae & M. Woodbury (1985). Analysis: Parameter and variance estimation. In Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program (ed. W. W. Eaton and L. G. Kessler ), pp. 327348. Academic Press: New York

G. G Koch , D. H. Freeman & J. L. Freeman (1975). Strategies in the multivariate analysis of data from complex surveys. International Statistical Review 43, 5978

P. J. Leaf , P. S. German , E. Spitznagel , L. K. George , J Landsverk & C. D. Windle (1985). Sampling the institutional survey. In Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program (ed. W. W. Eaton and L. G. Kessler ), pp. 4966. Academic Press. New York

A. W. Loranger & T. M. Levine (1978). Age at onset of bipolar affective illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 13451348.

J. M. Murphy (1980). Continuities in community-based psychiatric epidemiology Archives of General Psychiatry 37, 12151223.

J. K. Myers , M. M. Weissman , G. L. Tischler , C E. Holzer , P. J. Leaf , H Orvaschel , J. C. Anthony , J. H. Boyd , J. D. Burke , M. Kramer & R. Stoltzman (1984). Six month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in three communities: 1980 to 1982. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 959967.

D. A. Regier , J. K. Myers , M. Kramer , L. N. Robins , D G. Blazer , R. L. Hough , W. W. Eaton & B. Z. Locke (1984). The NIMH epidemiologic catchment area program. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 934941.

L. N. Robins , (1985). Epidemiology: reflections on testing the validity of psychiatric interviews Archives of General psychiatry 42, 918941.

L. N. Robins , J. E Helzer , J. L. Croughan &K. S. Ratchff (1981). The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry 38, 381389.

L. N. Robins , J. E. Helzer , M. M. Weissman , H. Orvaschel , E. Gruenberg , J. D. Burke & D. A. Regier (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 949958.

B. J. Rounsaville , D. Sholomskas & B. A. Prusoff (1980). Chronic mood disorders in depressed outpatients: diagnosis and response to pharmacotherapy. Journal of Affective Disorders 2, 7388.

P. E. Shrout , R. L. Spitzer & J. L. Fleiss (1987). Quantification of agreement in psychiatric diagnosis revisited. Archives of General Psychiatry 44, 172177.

E. L. Spitznagel & J. E. Helzer (1985). A proposed solution to the base rate problem in the Kappa Statistic. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 725728.

P. G. Surtees , S. P. Sashidharan & C. Dean (1986). Affective disorder amongst women in the general population: a longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry 148, 176186.

S. Torgersen (1986). Genetic factors in moderately severe and mild affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 43, 222227.

E. H. Uhlenhuth , M. B. Baiter , G. D. Mellinger , I. H. Cisin & J. Calinthorne (1983). Symptom checklist syndromes in the general population: correlations with psychotherapeutic drug use. Archives of General Psychiatry 40, 11671173.

M. VonKorff , L. Cottler , L. George , W. W. Eaton , P. J. Leaf & A. Burnam (1985). Nonresponse and nonresponse bias in the ECA surveys. In Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program (ed. W. W. Eaton and L. G. Kessler ), pp. 8598. Academic Press: New York.

M. M. Weissman & G. L. Klerman (1977). Sex differences in the epidemiology of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 34, 98111.

M. M. Weissman & J. K. Myers (1978). Affective disorders in a US urban community: the use of Research Diagnostic Criteria in an epidemiologic survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 13041311.

M. M. Weissman , E. S. Gershon , K. K. Kidd , B. A. Prusoff , J. F. Leckman , E. Dibble , J. Hamovit , W. D. Thompson , D. L Pauls & J. J. Guroff (1984). Psychiatric disorders in the relatives of probands with affective disorders: the Yale–NIMH collaborative family study. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 1321.

G. Winokur (1980). Is there a common genetic factor in bipolar and unipolar affective disorder? Comprehensive Psychiatry 21, 460468.

H. V. Wittchen , G. Semler & D. von Zerssen (1985). A comparison of two diagnostic methods: clinical ICD diagnoses v. DSM-III and Research Diagnostic Criteria using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (Version 2). Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 677684

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score