This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
APA (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
A Armony , V Corbo , M-H Clément , A Brunet (2005). Amygdala response in patients with acute PTSD to masked and unmasked emotional facial expressions. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1961–1963.
EB Blanchard , EJ Hickling , LS Malta , J Jaccard , T Devineni , CH Veazey , TE Galovski (2003). Prediction of response to psychological treatment among motor vehicle accident survivors with PTSD. Behavior Therapy 34, 351–363.
R Bradley , J Greene , E Russ , L Dutra , D Westen (2005). A multidimensional meta analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 214–227.
JD Bremner , LH Staib , D Kaloupek , SM Southwick , R Soufer , DS Charney (1999). Neural correlates of exposure to traumatic pictures and sound in Vietnam combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study. Biological Psychiatry 45, 806–816.
AL Brody , S Saxena , JM Schwartz , PW Stoessel , R Maidment , ME Phelps , LR Baxter (1998). FDG-PET predictors of response to behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 84, 1–6.
RA Bryant (2006). Cognitive behavior therapy: implications from advances in neuroscience. In PTSD: Brain Mechanisms and Clinical Implications (ed. N. Kato , M. Kawata and R.K. Pitman ), pp. 255–270. Springer-Verlag: Tokyo.
RA Bryant , ML Moulds , RM Guthrie , ST Dang , RDV Nixon (2003). Imaginal exposure alone and imaginal exposure with cognitive restructuring in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71, 706–712.
DS Charney , AY Deutch , JH Krystal , SM Southwick , M Davis (1993). Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 294–305.
C-H Chen , K Ridler , J Suckling , S Williams , CHY Fu , E Merlo-Pich , E Bullmore (2007). Brain imaging correlates of depressive symptom severity and predictors of symptom improvement after antidepressant treatment. Biological Psychiatry 62, 407–414.
RJ Davidson , W Irwin , MJ Anderle , NH Kalin (2003). The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 64–75.
M Davis (1992). The role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety. Annual Review of Neuroscience 15, 353–375.
M Davis , KM Myers (2002). The role of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid in fear extinction: clinical implications for exposure therapy. Biological Psychiatry 52, 998–1007.
A Etkin , C Pittenger , HJ Polan , ER Kandel (2005). Toward a neurobiology of psychotherapy: basic science and clinical applications. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 17, 145–158.
KC Evans , DD Dougherty , MH Pollak , SL Rauch (2006). Using neuroimaging to predict treatment response in mood and anxiety disorders. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 18, 33–42.
EB Foa , EA Meadows (1997). Psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: a critical review. Annual Review of Psychology 48, 449–480.
T Furmark , M Tillfors , I Marteinsdottir , H Fischer , A Pissiota , B Långstrõm , M Fredrikson (2002). Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive behavior therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 425–433.
R Garcia , RM Voulmba , M Baudry , RF Thompson (1999). The amygdala modulates prefrontal cortex activity relative to conditioned fear. Nature 402, 294–296.
A Gilboa , AY Shalev , L Laor , H Lester , Y Louzoun , R Chisin , O Bonne (2004). Functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 55, 263–272.
RC Gur , R Sara , M Hagendoorn , O Marom , P Hughett , L Macy , T Turner , R Bajcsy , A Posner , RE Gur (2002). A method for obtaining 3-dimensional facial expressions and its standardization for use in neurocognitive studies. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 115, 137–143.
AG Harvey , RA Bryant , N Tarrier (2003). Cognitive behaviour therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review 23, 501–522.
RA Lanius , PC Williamson , M Densmore , K Boksman , MA Gupta , R Neufeld (2001). Neural correlates of traumatic memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: a functional MRI investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 1920–1922.
J LeDoux (1998). Fear and the brain: where have we been, and where are we going? Biological Psychiatry 44, 1229–1238.
I Liberzon , SF Taylor , R Amdur , TD Jung , KR Chamberlain , S Minoshima (1999). Brain activation in PTSD in response to trauma-related stimuli. Biological Psychiatry 45, 817–826.
BJ Liddell , KJ Brown , AH Kemp , MJ Barton , P Das , A Peduto , E Gordon , LM Williams (2005). A direct brainstem-amygdala-cortical ‘alarm’ system for subliminal signals of fear. Neuroimage 24, 235–243.
DEJ Linden (2006). How psychotherapy changes the brain – the contribution of functional neuroimaging. Molecular Psychiatry 11, 528–538.
S Maren , C Chang (2006). Recent fear is resistant to extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 18020–18025.
HS Mayberg , SK Brannan , RK Mahurin , PA Jerabek , JS Brickman , JL Tekell , JA Silva , S McGinnis , TG Glass , CC Martin , PT Fox (1997). Cingulate function in depression: a potential predictor of treatment response. Neuroreport 8, 1057–1061.
MR Milad , SL Rauch , RK Pitman , GJ Quirk (2006). Fear extinction in rats: implications for human brain imaging and anxiety disorders. Biological Psychology 73, 61–71.
KL Phan , JC Britton , SF Taylor , LM Fig , I Liberzon (2006). Corticolimbic blood flow during nontraumatic emotional processing in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 184–192.
SL Rauch , PJ Whalen , LM Shin , SC McInerney , ML Macklin , NB Lasko , SP Orr , RK Pitman (2000). Exaggerated amygdala response to masked facial stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: a functional MRI study. Biological Psychiatry 47, 769–776.
S Saxena , AL Brody , ML Ho , N Zohrabi , KM Maidment , LR Baxter (2003). Differential brain metabolic predictors of response to paroxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder versus major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 522–532.
LM Shin , CI Wright , PA Cannistraro , MM Wedig , K McMullin , B Martis , ML Macklin , M Lasko , SR Cavanagh , TS Krangek , SP Orr , RK Pitman , PJ Whalen , SL Rauch (2005). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 273–281.
GJ Siegle , CS Carter , ME Thase (2006). Use of fMRI to predict recovery: from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 735–738.
N Tzourio-Mazoyer , B Landaeau , D Papthanasciou , F Crivello , O Etard , N Delcroix , B Mazoyer , M Joliot (2002). Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain. Neuroimage 15, 273–289.
LM Williams , AH Kemp , KL Felmingham , M Barton , G Olivieri , AS Peduto , E Gordon , RA Bryant (2006). Trauma modulates amygdale and medial prefrontal responses to consciously attended fear. Neuroimage 29, 347–357.
LM Williams , BJ Liddell , J Rathjen , KJ Brown , J Gray , M Phillips , A Young , E Gordon (2004). Mapping the time course of nonconscious and conscious perception of fear: an integration of central and peripheral measures. Human Brain Mapping 21, 64–74.