Jokela, Markus Berg, Venla Silventoinen, Karri Batty, G. David Singh-Manoux, Archana Kaprio, Jaakko Davey Smith, George and Kivimäki, Mika 2016. Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms: Testing for Adverse and Protective Associations in Two Twin Cohort Studies. Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 19, Issue. 04, p. 306.
Sørensen, H.J. Gamborg, M. Sørensen, T.I.A. Baker, J.L. and Mortensen, E.L. 2016. Childhood body mass index and risk of schizophrenia in relation to childhood age, sex and age of first contact with schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, Vol. 34, p. 64.
Jokela, M Hamer, M Singh-Manoux, A Batty, G D and Kivimäki, M 2014. Association of metabolically healthy obesity with depressive symptoms: pooled analysis of eight studies. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 19, Issue. 8, p. 910.
Jokela, M. Elovainio, M. Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. Batty, G. D. Hintsanen, M. Seppälä, I. Kähönen, M. Viikari, J. S. Raitakari, O. T. Lehtimäki, T. and Kivimäki, M. 2012. Body mass index and depressive symptoms: instrumental-variables regression with genetic risk score. Genes, Brain and Behavior, p. n/a.
Gunnell, David and Thomas, Kyla 2011. International Handbook of Suicide Prevention.
Kivimaki, M. Jokela, M. Hamer, M. Geddes, J. Ebmeier, K. Kumari, M. Singh-Manoux, A. Hingorani, A. and Batty, G. D. 2011. Examining Overweight and Obesity as Risk Factors for Common Mental Disorders Using Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Genotype-Instrumented Analysis: The Whitehall II Study, 1985-2004. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 173, Issue. 4, p. 421.
Lawlor, Debbie A. Harbord, Roger M. Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne Palmer, Tom M. Zacho, Jeppe Benn, Marianne Timpson, Nicholas J. Davey Smith, George and Nordestgaard, Børge G. 2011. Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53 221 adults. Journal of Internal Medicine, Vol. 269, Issue. 5, p. 525.
Pieper, L. Dirmaier, J. Klotsche, J. Thurau, C. Pittrow, D. Lehnert, H. März, W. Koch, U. and Wittchen, H.-U. 2011. Longitudinale Assoziationen zwischen depressiven Symptomen und Typ-2-Diabetes sowie deren Auswirkung auf die Mortalität von Hausarztpatienten. Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz, Vol. 54, Issue. 1, p. 98.
Batty, G. D. Whitley, E. Kivimaki, M. Tynelius, P. and Rasmussen, F. 2010. Body Mass Index and Attempted Suicide: Cohort Study of 1,133,019 Swedish Men. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 172, Issue. 8, p. 890.
McCafferty, S. Doherty, T. Sinnott, R. O. and Watt, J. 2010. e-Infrastructures supporting research into depression, self-harm and suicide. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 368, Issue. 1925, p. 3845.
Chen, Yue Jiang, Ying and Mao, Yang 2009. Association between Obesity and Depression in Canadians. Journal of Women's Health, Vol. 18, Issue. 10, p. 1687.
Thielen, K. Nygaard, E. Andersen, I. Rugulies, R. Heinesen, E. Bech, P. Bültmann, U. and Diderichsen, F. 2009. Misclassification and the use of register-based indicators for depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 119, Issue. 4, p. 312.
Zhao, G Ford, E S Dhingra, S Li, C Strine, T W and Mokdad, A H 2009. Depression and anxiety among US adults: associations with body mass index. International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 33, Issue. 2, p. 257.
Hrabosky, Joshua I. and Thomas, Jennifer J. 2008. Elucidating the Relationship Between Obesity and Depression: Recommendations for Future Research. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 28.
Mezuk, Briana 2008. Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis. Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Vol. 6, Issue. 3-4, p. 101.
There is evidence that greater body mass index (BMI) protects against depression, schizophrenia and suicide. However, there is a need for prospective studies.
We examined the association of BMI with future hospital admissions for psychoses or depression/anxiety disorders in a large prospective study of 7036 men and 8327 women. Weight and height were measured at baseline (1972–76) when participants were aged 45–64. Follow-up was for a median of 29 years.
Greater BMI and obesity were associated with a reduced risk of hospital admission for psychoses and depression/anxiety in both genders, with the magnitude of these associations being the same for males and females. With adjustment for age, sex, smoking and social class, a 1 standard deviation (s.d.) greater BMI at baseline was associated with a rate ratio of 0·91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·82–1·01] for psychoses and 0·87 (95% CI 0·77–0·98) for depression/anxiety. Further adjustment for baseline psychological distress and total cholesterol did not alter these associations.
Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that suggests that greater BMI is associated with a reduced risk of major psychiatric outcomes. Long-term follow-up of participants in randomized controlled trials of interventions that effectively result in weight loss and the use of genetic variants that are functionally related to obesity as instrumental variables could help to elucidate whether these associations are causal.
This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.