This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
JR Almeida , DM Kronhaus , EL Sibille , SA Langenecker , A Versace , EJ Labarbara , ML Phillips (2011). Abnormal left-sided orbitomedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity during happy and fear face processing: a potential neural mechanism of female MDD. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2, 69.
SL Andersen , A Tomada , ES Vincow , E Valente , A Polcari , MH Teicher (2008). Preliminary evidence for sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 20, 292–301.
AT Beck , CH Ward , M Mendelson , J Mock , J Erbaugh (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 561–571.
EM Bernstein , FW Putnam (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 174, 727–735.
JR Blair , O Spreen (1989). Predicting premorbid IQ: a revision of the National Adult Reading Test. Clinical Neuropsychologist 3, 129–136.
DD Blake , FW Weathers , LM Nagy , DG Kaloupek , FD Gusman , DS Charney , TM Keane (1995). The development of a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress 8, 75–90.
CR Brewin , B Andrews , JD Valentine (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 748–766.
KH Brohawn , R Offringa , DL Pfaff , KC Hughes , LM Shin (2010). The neural correlates of emotional memory in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 68, 1023–1030.
A Burgos-Robles , I Vidal-Gonzalez , GJ Quirk (2009). Sustained conditioned responses in prelimbic prefrontal neurons are correlated with fear expression and extinction failure. Journal of Neuroscience 29, 8474–8482.
U Dannlowski , A Stuhrmann , V Beutelmann , P Zwanzger , T Lenzen , D Grotegerd , K Domschke , C Hohoff , P Ohrmann , J Bauer , C Lindner , C Postert , C Konrad , V Arolt , W Heindel , T Suslow , H Kugel (2012). Limbic scars: long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment revealed by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry 71, 286–293.
EE Edmiston , F Wang , CM Mazure , J Guiney , R Sinha , LC Mayes , HP Blumberg (2011). Corticostriatal-limbic gray matter morphology in adolescents with self-reported exposure to childhood maltreatment. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 165, 1069–1077.
A Etkin , T Egner , R Kalisch (2011). Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15, 85–93.
A Etkin , TD Wager (2007). Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1476–1488.
V Francati , E Vermetten , JD Bremner (2007). Functional neuroimaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder: review of current methods and findings. Depression and Anxiety 24, 202–218.
F Grabenhorst , ET Rolls (2011). Value, pleasure and choice in the ventral prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15, 56–67.
JL Hanson , MK Chung , BB Avants , EA Shirtcliff , JC Gee , RJ Davidson , SD Pollak (2010). Early stress is associated with alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex: a tensor-based morphometry investigation of brain structure and behavioral risk. Journal of Neuroscience 30, 7466–7472.
T Insel , B Cuthbert , M Garvey , R Heinssen , DS Pine , K Quinn , C Sanislow , P Wang (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 748–751.
T Keane , J Fairbank , J Caddell , R Zimering , K Taylor , C Mora (1989). Clinical evaluation of a measure to assess combat exposure. Psychological Assessment 1, 53–55.
RA Lanius , E Vermetten , RJ Loewenstein , B Brand , C Schmahl , JD Bremner , D Spiegel (2010). Emotion modulation in PTSD: clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 640–647.
SJ Lupien , BS McEwen , MR Gunnar , C Heim (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10, 434–445.
MR Milad , RK Pitman , CB Ellis , AL Gold , LM Shin , NB Lasko , MA Zeidan , K Handwerger , SP Orr , SL Rauch (2009). Neurobiological basis of failure to recall extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 66, 1075–1082.
MR Milad , SL Rauch , RK Pitman , GJ Quirk (2006). Fear extinction in rats: implications for human brain imaging and anxiety disorders. Biological Psychology 73, 61–71.
ML Phillips , CD Ladouceur , WC Drevets (2008). A neural model of voluntary and automatic emotion regulation: implications for understanding the pathophysiology and neurodevelopment of bipolar disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 829–857.
GJ Quirk , D Mueller (2008). Neural mechanisms of extinction learning and retrieval. Neuropsychopharmacology 33, 56–72.
SL Rauch , LM Shin , EA Phelps (2006). Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research – past, present, and future. Biological Psychiatry 60, 376–382.
A Rougemont-Bücking , C Linnman , TA Zeffiro , MA Zeidan , K Lebron-Milad , J Rodriguez-Romaguera , SL Rauch , RK Pitman , MR Milad (2011). Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: an fMRI study. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics 17, 227–236.
CD Scher , MB Stein , GJ Asmundson , DR McCreary , DR Forde (2001). The childhood trauma questionnaire in a community sample: psychometric properties and normative data. Journal of Traumatic Stress 14, 843–857.
AJ Shackman , TV Salomons , HA Slagter , AS Fox , JJ Winter , RJ Davidson (2011). The integration of negative affect, pain and cognitive control in the cingulate cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 12, 154–167.
LM Shin , G Bush , MR Milad , NB Lasko , KH Brohawn , KC Hughes , ML Macklin , AL Gold , RD Karpf , SP Orr , SL Rauch , RK Pitman (2011). Exaggerated activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during cognitive interference: a monozygotic twin study of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 979–985.
LM Shin , NB Lasko , ML Macklin , RD Karpf , MR Milad , SP Orr , JM Goetz , AJ Fischman , SL Rauch , RK Pitman (2009). Resting metabolic activity in the cingulate cortex and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 1099–1107.
LM Shin , I Liberzon (2010). The neurocircuitry of fear, stress, and anxiety disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 35, 169–191.
D Sierra-Mercado , N Padilla-Coreano , GJ Quirk (2011). Dissociable roles of prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, ventral hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala in the expression and extinction of conditioned fear. Neuropsychopharmacology 36, 529–538.
GA van Wingen , E Geuze , E Vermetten , G Fernández (2011 a). Perceived threat predicts the neural sequelae of combat stress. Molecular Psychiatry 16, 664–671.
GA van Wingen , E Geuze , E Vermetten , G Fernandez (2011 b). The neural consequences of combat stress: long-term follow-up. Molecular Psychiatry 17, 116–118.
I Vidal-Gonzalez , B Vidal-Gonzalez , SL Rauch , GJ Quirk (2006). Microstimulation reveals opposing influences of prelimbic and infralimbic cortex on the expression of conditioned fear. Learning and Memory 13, 728–733.
FW Weathers , TM Keane , JR Davidson (2001). Clinician-administered PTSD scale: a review of the first ten years of research. Depression and Anxiety 13, 132–156.
AA Wilber , AG Walker , CJ Southwood , MR Farrell , GL Lin , GV Rebec , CL Wellman (2011). Chronic stress alters neural activity in medial prefrontal cortex during retrieval of extinction. Neuroscience 174, 115–131.