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Clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in autistic spectrum disorder: a structural MRI study

  • F. Toal (a1) (a2), E. M. Daly (a2), L. Page (a2), Q. Deeley (a2), B. Hallahan (a1) (a2), O. Bloemen (a2), W. J. Cutter (a2), M. J. Brammer (a3), S. Curran (a2), D. Robertson (a2), C. Murphy (a2), K. C. Murphy (a1) and D. G. M. Murphy (a2)...
Abstract
Background

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by stereotyped/obsessional behaviours and social and communicative deficits. However, there is significant variability in the clinical phenotype; for example, people with autism exhibit language delay whereas those with Asperger syndrome do not. It remains unclear whether localized differences in brain anatomy are associated with variation in the clinical phenotype.

Method

We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate brain anatomy in adults with ASD. We included 65 adults diagnosed with ASD (39 with Asperger syndrome and 26 with autism) and 33 controls who did not differ significantly in age or gender.

Results

VBM revealed that subjects with ASD had a significant reduction in grey-matter volume of medial temporal, fusiform and cerebellar regions, and in white matter of the brainstem and cerebellar regions. Furthermore, within the subjects with ASD, brain anatomy varied with clinical phenotype. Those with autism demonstrated an increase in grey matter in frontal and temporal lobe regions that was not present in those with Asperger syndrome.

Conclusions

Adults with ASD have significant differences from controls in the anatomy of brain regions implicated in behaviours characterizing the disorder, and this differs according to clinical subtype.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr F. Toal, MRCPsych, Institute of Forensic Mental Health, Thomas Embling Hospital, Yarra Bend Road, Melbourne, Australia. (Email: ftoal@rcsi.ie)
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RT Schultz , I Gauthier , A Klin , RK Fulbright , AW Anderson , F Volkmar , P Skudlarski , C Lacadie , DJ Cohen , JC Gore (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 331340.

LL Sears , C Vest , S Mohamed , J Bailey , BJ Ranson , J Piven (1999). An MRI study of the basal ganglia in autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 23, 613624.

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BF Sparks , SD Friedman , DW Shaw , EH Aylward , D Echelard , AA Artru , KR Maravilla , JN Giedd , J Munson , G Dawson , SR Dager (2002). Brain structural abnormalities in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology 59, 184192.

GD Waiter , JH Williams , AD Murray , A Gilchrist , DI Perrett , A Whiten (2004). A voxel-based investigation of brain structure in male adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder. NeuroImage 22, 619625.

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Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
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