Markkula, Niina Härkänen, Tommi Nieminen, Tarja Peña, Sebastián Mattila, Aino K. Koskinen, Seppo Saarni, Samuli I. and Suvisaari, Jaana 2016. Prognosis of depressive disorders in the general population– results from the longitudinal Finnish Health 2011 Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 190, p. 687.
Kessler, R. C. Sampson, N. A. Berglund, P. Gruber, M. J. Al-Hamzawi, A. Andrade, L. Bunting, B. Demyttenaere, K. Florescu, S. de Girolamo, G. Gureje, O. He, Y. Hu, C. Huang, Y. Karam, E. Kovess-Masfety, V. Lee, S Levinson, D. Medina Mora, M. E. Moskalewicz, J. Nakamura, Y. Navarro-Mateu, F. Browne, M. A. Oakley Piazza, M. Posada-Villa, J. Slade, T. ten Have, M. Torres, Y. Vilagut, G. Xavier, M. Zarkov, Z. Shahly, V. and Wilcox, M. A. 2015. Anxious and non-anxious major depressive disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, Vol. 24, Issue. 03, p. 210.
Lin, C.-L. Chen, C.-S. and Liu, T.-C. 2015. Do stock prices drive people crazy?. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 206.
Goldberg, David P. 2014. ANXIOUS FORMS OF DEPRESSION. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 31, Issue. 4, p. 344.
Murphy, Jane M. 2011. Textbook of Psychiatric Epidemiology.
Armstrong, Paula S. and Schulman, Michael D. 2010. Financial Strain and Depression Among Farm Operators: The Role of Perceived Economic Hardship and Personal Control1. Rural Sociology, Vol. 55, Issue. 4, p. 475.
Fichter, M. M. Quadflieg, N. Fischer, U. C. and Kohlboeck, G. 2009. Twenty-five-year course and outcome in anxiety and depression in the Upper Bavarian Longitudinal Community Study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 122, Issue. 1, p. 75.
Murphy, J M Horton, N J Burke, J D Monson, R R Laird, N M Lesage, A and Sobol, A M 2009. Obesity and weight gain in relation to depression: findings from the Stirling County Study. International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 335.
Murphy, J. M. and Leighton, A. H. 2009. Anxiety: its role in the history of psychiatric epidemiology. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 39, Issue. 07, p. 1055.
Marciniak, Martin D. Lage, Maureen J. Dunayevich, Eduardo Russell, James M. Bowman, Lee Landbloom, Ronald P. and Levine, Louise R. 2005. The cost of treating anxiety: the medical and demographic correlates that impact total medical costs. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 21, Issue. 4, p. 178.
Atanackovic, D. Kröger, H. Serke, S. and Deter, H.-C. 2004. Immune parameters in patients with anxiety or depression during psychotherapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 81, Issue. 3, p. 201.
Murphy, J. M. Horton, N. J. Laird, N. M. Monson, R. R. Sobol, A. M. and Leighton, A. H. 2004. Anxiety and depression: a 40-year perspective on relationships regarding prevalence, distribution, and comorbidity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 109, Issue. 5, p. 355.
Andrade, Laura Caraveo-anduaga, Jorge J. Berglund, Patricia Bijl, Rob V. Graaf, Ron De Vollebergh, Wilma Dragomirecka, Eva Kohn, Robert Keller, Martin Kessler, Ronald C Kawakami, Norito Kiliç, Cengiz Offord, David Bedirhan Ustun, T. and Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich 2003. The epidemiology of major depressive episodes: results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 3.
Murphy, Jane M Nierenberg, Andrew A Laird, Nan M Monson, Richard R Sobol, Arthur M and Leighton, Alexander H 2002. Incidence of major depression: prediction from subthreshold categories in the Stirling County Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 68, Issue. 2-3, p. 251.
Brawman-Mintzer, Olga 2001. Pharmacologic Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 119.
Tyrer, Peter Seivewright, Helen Simmonds, Shaeda and Johnson, Tony 2001. Prospective studies of cothymia (mixed anxiety-depression): how do they inform clinical practice?. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol. 251, Issue. S2, p. 53.
van Weel-Baumgarten, E M Schers, H J van den Bosch, W J van den Hoogen, H J and Zitman, F G 2001. Het langetermijnbeloop van depressie bij patiënten in de open bevolking en de huisartspraktijk. Huisarts en Wetenschap, Vol. 44, Issue. 12, p. 100.
Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich Schuster, Peter and Lieb, Roselind 2001. Comorbidity and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder: clinical curiosity or pathophysiological need?. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 16, Issue. S1, p. S21.
Lespérance, François and Frasure-Smith, Nancy 2000. Depression in patients with cardiac disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 48, Issue. 4-5, p. 379.
Rouillon, F 1999. Anxiety with depression: a treatment need. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 9, p. S87.
An assessment of the long-term outcome for depression and anxiety disorders in a general population was made as part of the Stirling County Study. Measuring outcome as a dichotomy between experiencing recurrent episodes or not during a 17-year cohort interval, it was found that 56% of the ‘cases’ had a poor prognosis. While sex, age and level of severity were not significantly related to outcome, an initial diagnosis of depression was predictive of unfavourable prognosis. Only a few of these ‘cases’ received psychiatric specialty treatment. Some disorders in the community appear, however, to be as serious as those that come to the attention of psychiatrists.
This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.