Armour, Cherie Műllerová, Jana and Elhai, Jon D. 2016. A systematic literature review of PTSD's latent structure in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV to DSM-5. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 44, p. 60.
Ford, Julian D. Schneeberger, Andres R. Komarovskaya, Irina Muenzenmaier, Kristina Castille, Dorothy Opler, Lewis A. and Link, Bruce 2016. The Symptoms of Trauma Scale (SOTS): Psychometric evaluation and gender differences with adults diagnosed with serious mental illness. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, p. 1.
Armour, Cherie Tsai, Jack Durham, Tory A. Charak, Ruby Biehn, Tracey L. Elhai, Jon D. and Pietrzak, Robert H. 2015. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms: Support for a hybrid Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviors model. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 61, p. 106.
Böttche, Maria Pietrzak, Robert H. Kuwert, Philipp and Knaevelsrud, Christine 2015. Typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder in treatment-seeking older adults. International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 27, Issue. 03, p. 501.
Ford, Julian D. Grasso, Damion J. Elhai, Jon D. and Courtois, Christine A. 2015. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
FORD, JULIAN D. MENDELSOHN, MICHAELA OPLER, LEWIS A. OPLER, MARK G.A. KALLIVAYALIL, DIYA LEVITAN, JOCELYN PRATTS, MICHAEL MUENZENMAIER, KRISTINA SHELLEY, ANNE-MARIE GRENNAN, MICHELLE S. and LEWIS HERMAN, JUDITH 2015. The Symptoms of Trauma Scale (SOTS). Journal of Psychiatric Practice, Vol. 21, Issue. 6, p. 474.
Levi-Belz, Yossi Zerach, Gadi and Solomon, Zahava 2015. Suicide Ideation and Deliberate Self-Harm among Ex-Prisoners of War. Archives of Suicide Research, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 231.
Contractor, Ateka A. Durham, Tory A. Brennan, Julie A. Armour, Cherie Wutrick, Hanna R. Christopher Frueh, B. and Elhai, Jon D. 2014. DSM-5 PTSD's symptom dimensions and relations with major depression's symptom dimensions in a primary care sample. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 215, Issue. 1, p. 146.
Gentes, Emily L. Dennis, Paul A. Kimbrel, Nathan A. Rissling, Michelle B. Beckham, Jean C. and Calhoun, Patrick S. 2014. DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder: Factor structure and rates of diagnosis. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 59, p. 60.
Greene, Carolyn A. Ford, Julian D. Wakefield, Dorothy B. and Barry, Lisa C. 2014. Posttraumatic stress mediates the relationship between childhood victimization and current mental health burden in newly incarcerated adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 38, Issue. 10, p. 1569.
O'Donnell, M. L. Alkemade, N. Nickerson, A. Creamer, M. McFarlane, A. C. Silove, D. Bryant, R. A. and Forbes, D. 2014. Impact of the diagnostic changes to post-traumatic stress disorder for DSM-5 and the proposed changes to ICD-11. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 205, Issue. 3, p. 230.
Armour, Cherie Carragher, Natacha and Elhai, Jon D. 2013. Assessing the fit of the Dysphoric Arousal model across two nationally representative epidemiological surveys: The Australian NSMHWB and the United States NESARC. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 109.
Armour, Cherie Raudzah Ghazali, Siti and Elklit, Ask 2013. PTSD's latent structure in Malaysian tsunami victims: Assessing the newly proposed Dysphoric Arousal model. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 206, Issue. 1, p. 26.
Armour, Cherie and Shevlin, Mark 2013. Assessing the Specificity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder’s Dysphoric Items within the Dysphoria Model. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 201, Issue. 10, p. 907.
Contractor, Ateka A. Layne, Christopher M. Steinberg, Alan M. Ostrowski, Sarah A. Ford, Julian D. and Elhai, Jon D. 2013. Do gender and age moderate the symptom structure of PTSD? Findings from a national clinical sample of children and adolescents. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 210, Issue. 3, p. 1056.
Elhai, Jon D. Layne, Christopher M. Steinberg, Alan M. Brymer, Melissa J. Briggs, Ernestine C. Ostrowski, Sarah A. and Pynoos, Robert S. 2013. Psychometric Properties of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index. Part II: Investigating Factor Structure Findings in a National Clinic-Referred Youth Sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 10.
Stein, Dan J. Rothbaum, Barbara O. Baldwin, David S. Szumski, Annette Pedersen, Ronald and Davidson, Jonathan R. T. 2013. A factor analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms using data pooled from two venlafaxine extended-release clinical trials. Brain and Behavior, Vol. 3, Issue. 6, p. 738.
Wang, Mengcheng Armour, Cherie Li, Xiaomin Dai, Xiaoyang Zhu, Xiongzhao and Yao, Shuqiao 2013. The Factorial Invariance Across Gender of Three Well-Supported Models. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 201, Issue. 2, p. 145.
Wang, Richu Wang, Li Li, Zhongquan Cao, Chengqi Shi, Zhanbiao and Zhang, Jianxin 2013. Latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in an adolescent sample one month after an earthquake. Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 717.
Zoellner, Lori A. Bedard-Gilligan, Michele A. Jun, Janie J. Marks, Libby H. and Garcia, Natalia M. 2013. The Evolving Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): DSM-5 Criteria Changes and Legal Implications. Psychological Injury and Law, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 277.
Two alternative models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appear to represent the disorder's latent structure better than the traditional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) three-factor PTSD model. The present study examines the impact of using these structural models for the diagnosis of lifetime PTSD while retaining the DSM-IV PTSD's six-symptom diagnostic requirement.
Data were gathered from large-scale, epidemiological datasets collected with adults (National Comorbidity Survey Replication) and adolescents (National Survey of Adolescents). Two alternative, empirically supported four-factor models of PTSD were compared with the DSM-IV three-factor PTSD diagnostic model.
Results indicated that the diagnostic alterations resulted in substantially improved structural validity, downward adjustments of PTSD's lifetime prevalence (roughly 1 percentage point decreases in adults, 1–2.5 percentage point decreases in adolescents), and equivalent psychiatric co-morbidity and sociodemographic associations.
Implications for modifying PTSD diagnostic criteria in future editions of DSM are discussed.
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