Conway, Charles R. Gott, Britt M. and Azhar, Naazia H. 2016. Neuromodulation in Psychiatry.
Guiraud, David Andreu, David Bonnet, Stéphane Carrault, Guy Couderc, Pascal Hagège, Albert Henry, Christine Hernandez, Alfredo Karam, Nicole Le Rolle, Virginie Mabo, Philippe Maciejasz, Paweł Malbert, Charles-Henri Marijon, Eloi Maubert, Sandrine Picq, Chloé Rossel, Olivier and Bonnet, Jean-Luc 2016. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation. Journal of Neural Engineering, Vol. 13, Issue. 4, p. 041002.
Larsen, Lars E. Wadman, Wytse J. Marinazzo, Daniele van Mierlo, Pieter Delbeke, Jean Daelemans, Sofie Sprengers, Mathieu Thyrion, Lisa Van Lysebettens, Wouter Carrette, Evelien Boon, Paul Vonck, Kristl and Raedt, Robrecht 2016. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Applied with a Rapid Cycle Has More Profound Influence on Hippocampal Electrophysiology Than a Standard Cycle. Neurotherapeutics, Vol. 13, Issue. 3, p. 592.
Shah, A.P. Carreno, F.R. Wu, H. Chung, Y.A. and Frazer, A. 2016. Role of TrkB in the anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects of vagal nerve stimulation: Comparison with desipramine. Neuroscience, Vol. 322, p. 273.
Conway, Charles R. Colijn, Mark A. and Schachter, Steven C. 2015. Brain Stimulation.
Grimonprez, Annelies Raedt, Robrecht Portelli, Jeanelle Dauwe, Ine Larsen, Lars Emil Bouckaert, Charlotte Delbeke, Jean Carrette, Evelien Meurs, Alfred De Herdt, Veerle Boon, Paul and Vonck, Kristl 2015. The antidepressant-like effect of vagus nerve stimulation is mediated through the locus coeruleus. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 68, p. 1.
Grimonprez, Annelies Raedt, Robrecht De Taeye, Leen Larsen, Lars Emil Delbeke, Jean Boon, Paul and Vonck, Kristl 2015. A Preclinical Study of Laryngeal Motor-Evoked Potentials as a Marker Vagus Nerve Activation. International Journal of Neural Systems, Vol. 25, Issue. 08, p. 1550034.
Grimonprez, Annelies Raedt, Robrecht Dauwe, Ine Mollet, Lies Larsen, Lars Emil Meurs, Alfred De Herdt, Veerle Wadman, Wytse Delbeke, Jean Vonck, Kristl and Boon, Paul 2015. Vagus Nerve Stimulation has Antidepressant Effects in the Kainic Acid Model for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Brain Stimulation, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 13.
Grimonprez, Annelies Raedt, Robrecht Baeken, Chris Boon, Paul and Vonck, Kristl 2015. The antidepressant mechanism of action of vagus nerve stimulation: Evidence from preclinical studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 56, p. 26.
Husain, Mustafa M. Lisanby, Sarah H. and Kay, Jerald 2015. Psychiatry.
Hoffmann, J.M. 2014. Update zur Vagusnervstimulation. Zeitschrift für Epileptologie, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 19.
Howland, Robert H. 2014. Vagus Nerve Stimulation. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, p. 64.
Shah, Aparna Carreno, Flavia Regina and Frazer, Alan 2014. Therapeutic Modalities for Treatment Resistant Depression: Focus on Vagal Nerve Stimulation and Ketamine. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 83.
Bauer, Michael Pfennig, Andrea Severus, Emanuel Whybrow, Peter C. Angst, Jules and Möller, Hans-Jürgen 2013. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Unipolar Depressive Disorders, Part 1: Update 2013 on the acute and continuation treatment of unipolar depressive disorders. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 14, Issue. 5, p. 334.
Christmas, David Steele, J. Douglas Tolomeo, Serenella Eljamel, M. Sam and Matthews, Keith 2013. Vagus nerve stimulation for chronic major depressive disorder: 12-month outcomes in highly treatment-refractory patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 150, Issue. 3, p. 1221.
Gebhardt, Nils Bär, Karl-Jürgen Boettger, Michael K. Grecksch, Gisela Keilhoff, Gerburg Reichart, Rupert and Becker, Axel 2013. Vagus nerve stimulation ameliorated deficits in one-way active avoidance learning and stimulated hippocampal neurogenesis in bulbectomized rats. Brain Stimulation, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 78.
George, Mark S. Taylor, Joseph J. and Short, Baron 2013. Brain Stimulation.
Hein, Ernst Nowak, Magdalena Kiess, Olga Biermann, Teresa Bayerlein, Kristina Kornhuber, Johannes and Kraus, Thomas 2013. Auricular transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in depressed patients: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Neural Transmission, Vol. 120, Issue. 5, p. 821.
Matthews, Christine Tolomeo, Serenella and Matthews, Keith 2013. Neurostimulation.
Schläpfer, Thomas E. and Kayser, Sarah 2013. Treatment-resistant Depression.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is associated with a decrease in seizure frequency in partial-onset seizure patients. Initial trials suggest that it may be an effective treatment, with few side-effects, for intractable depression.
An open, uncontrolled European multi-centre study (D03) of VNS therapy was conducted, in addition to stable pharmacotherapy, in 74 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Treatment remained unchanged for the first 3 months; in the subsequent 9 months, medications and VNS dosing parameters were altered as indicated clinically.
The baseline 28-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-28) score averaged 34. After 3 months of VNS, response rates (⩾50% reduction in baseline scores) reached 37% and remission rates (HAMD-28 score <10) 17%. Response rates increased to 53% after 1 year of VNS, and remission rates reached 33%. Response was defined as sustained if no relapse occurred during the first year of VNS after response onset; 44% of patients met these criteria. Median time to response was 9 months. Most frequent side-effects were voice alteration (63% at 3 months of stimulation) and coughing (23%).
VNS therapy was effective in reducing severity of depression; efficacy increased over time. Efficacy ratings were in the same range as those previously reported from a USA study using a similar protocol; at 12 months, reduction of symptom severity was significantly higher in the European sample. This might be explained by a small but significant difference in the baseline HAMD-28 score and the lower number of treatments in the current episode in the European study.
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