Alamanos, Y and Drosos, AA (2005) Epidemiology of adult rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmunity Reviews 4, 130–136.
Baker, NA, Barbour, KE, Helmick, CG, Zack, M and Al Snih, S (2017) Arthritis and cognitive impairment in older adults. Rheumatology International 37, 955–961.
Banks, J, Muriel, A and Smith, JP (2011) Attrition and health in ageing studies: evidence from ELSA and HRS. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 2, 1–26.
Berryman, C, Stanton, TR, Bowering, JK, Tabor, A, McFarlane, A and Moseley, LG (2013) Evidence for working memory deficits in chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain 154, 1181–1196.
Bowling, A, Seetai, S, Morris, R and Ebrahim, S (2007) Quality of life among older people with poor functioning. The influence of perceived control over life. Age and Ageing 36, 310–315.
Campbell, LC, Clauw, DJ and Keefe, FJ (2003) Persistent pain and depression: a biopsychosocial perspective. Biological Psychiatry 54, 399–409.
Castillo, RC, Wegener, ST, Heins, SE, Haythornthwaite, JA, MacKenzie, EJ and Bosse, MJ (2013) Longitudinal relationships between anxiety, depression, and pain: results from a two-year cohort study of lower extremity trauma patients. PAIN® 154, 2860–2866.
Chou, K-L (2007) Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression in older adults: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Journal of Affective Disorders 102, 115–123.
Costa, PT (1987) Influence of the normal personality dimension of neuroticism on chest pain symptoms and coronary artery disease. The American Journal of Cardiology 60, J20–J26.
Courtin, E and Knapp, M (2017) Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: a scoping review. Health & Social Care in the Community 25, 799–812.
Croft, PR, Lewis, M, Papageorgiou, AC, Thomas, E, Jayson, MIV, Macfarlane, GJ and Silman, AJ (2001) Risk factors for neck pain: a longitudinal study in the general population. Pain 93, 317–325.
de Goeij, M, van Eijk, LT, Vanelderen, P, Wilder-Smith, OH, Vissers, KC, van der Hoeven, JG and Pickkers, P (2013) Systemic inflammation decreases pain threshold in humans in vivo. PLoS ONE 8, e84159.
Deary, IJ, Weiss, A and Batty, GD (2010) Intelligence and personality as predictors of illness and death: how researchers in differential psychology and chronic disease epidemiology are collaborating to understand and address health inequalities. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 11, 53–79.
Dowlati, Y, Herrmann, N, Swardfager, W, Liu, H, Sham, L, Reim, EK and Lanctôt, KL (2010) A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. Biological Psychiatry 67, 446–457.
Drageset, J (2004) The importance of activities of daily living and social contact for loneliness: a survey among residents in nursing homes. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 18, 65–71.
Eccleston, C and Crombez, G (1999) Pain demands attention: a cognitive–affective model of the interruptive function of pain. Psychological Bulletin 125, 356.
Edwards, RR, Cahalan, C, Mensing, G, Smith, M and Haythornthwaite, JA (2011) Pain, catastrophizing, and depression in the rheumatic diseases. Nature Reviews Rheumatology 7, 216–224.
Ferreira-Valente, MA, Pais-Ribeiro, JL and Jensen, MP (2011) Validity of four pain intensity rating scales. PAIN® 152, 2399–2404.
Gale, CR, Allerhand, M and Deary, IJ (2012 a) Is there a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive ability in older people? A prospective study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychological Medicine 42, 2057–2069.
Gale, CR, Deary, IJ, Cooper, C and Batty, GD (2012 b) Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey. PAIN® 153, 2339–2344.
Gatchel, RJ, Peng, YB, Peters, ML, Fuchs, PN and Turk, DC (2007) The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin 133, 581–624.
Geerlings, SW, Twisk, JWR, Beekman, ATF, Deeg, DJH and van Tilburg, W (2002) Longitudinal relationship between pain and depression in older adults: sex, age and physical disability. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 37, 23–30.
Gerrits, MMJG, van Marwijk, HWJ, van Oppen, P, van der Horst, H and Penninx, BWJH (2015) Longitudinal association between pain, and depression and anxiety over four years. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 78, 64–70.
Goubert, L, Crombez, G and Van Damme, S (2004) The role of neuroticism, pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear in vigilance to pain: a structural equations approach. Pain 107, 234–241.
Hamaker, EL, Kuiper, RM and Grasman, RPPP (2015) A critique of the cross-lagged panel model. Psychological Methods 20, 102–116.
Hawker, GA, Gignac, MAM, Badley, E, Davis, AM, French, MR, Li, Y and Lou, W (2011) A longitudinal study to explain the pain-depression link in older adults with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 63, 1382–1390.
Holahan, CK and Holahan, CJ (1987) Self-efficacy, social support, and depression in aging: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Gerontology 42, 65–68.
Hu, LT and Bentler, PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 6, 1–55.
Huang, S-W, Wang, W-T, Chou, L-C, Liao, C-D, Liou, T-H and Lin, H-W (2015) Osteoarthritis increases the risk of dementia: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan. Scientific Reports 5, 10145.
Hurwitz, EL, Morgenstern, H and Yu, F (2003) Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of low-back pain and related disability with psychological distress among patients enrolled in the UCLA Low-Back Pain Study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56, 463–471.
James, RJE, Walsh, DA and Ferguson, E (2018) General and disease specific pain trajectories as predictors of social and political outcomes in arthritis and cancer. BMC Medicine 16.
James, RJE, Walsh, DA and Ferguson, E (2019) Trajectories of pain predict disabilities affecting daily living in arthritis. British Journal of Health Psychology 1–12 (in press).
Johnson, VL and Hunter, DJ (2014) The epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 28, 5–15.
Keefe, FJ, Brown, GK, Wallston, KA and Caldwell, DS (1989) Coping with rheumatoid arthritis pain: catastrophizing as a maladaptive strategy. Pain 37, 51–56.
Keefe, FJ, Lefebvre, JC, Egert, JR, Affleck, G, Sullivan, MJ and Caldwell, DS (2000) The relationship of gender to pain, pain behavior, and disability in osteoarthritis patients: the role of catastrophizing. Pain 87, 325–334.
Kroenke, K, Wu, J, Bair, MJ, Krebs, EE, Damush, TM and Tu, W (2011) Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression: a 12-month longitudinal analysis in primary care. The Journal of Pain 12, 964–973.
Leonard, BE (2007) Inflammation, depression and dementia: are they connected? Neurochemical Research 32, 1749–1756.
Lépine, J-P and Briley, M (2004) The epidemiology of pain in depression. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 19, S3–S7.
Maier, SF and Watkins, LR (1998) Cytokines for psychologists: implications of bidirectional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood, and cognition. Psychological Review 105, 83–107.
Marmot, M, Oldfield, Z, Clemens, S, Blake, M, Phelps, A, Nazroo, J, Steptoe, A, Rogers, N, Banks, J and Oskala, A (2016) . SN: 5050, http://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-5050-12.
McCracken, LM and Iverson, GL (2001) Predicting complaints of impaired cognitive functioning in patients with chronic pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 21, 392–396.
McDermott, LM and Ebmeier, KP (2009) A meta-analysis of depression severity and cognitive function. Journal of Affective Disorders 119, 1–8.
McInnes, IB and Schett, G (2011) The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. New England Journal of Medicine 365, 2205–2219.
McWilliams, LA, Goodwin, RD and Cox, BJ (2004) Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: results from a nationally representative sample. Pain 111, 77–83.
Moriarty, O, McGuire, BE and Finn, DP (2011) The effect of pain on cognitive function: a review of clinical and preclinical research. Progress in Neurobiology 93, 385–404.
Muthén, BO and Muthén, LK (1998–2015) Mplus User's Guide, 7th Edn. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Neogi, T (2013) The epidemiology and impact of pain in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 21, 1145–1153.
Nicholson, NR (2012) A review of social isolation: an important but underassessed condition in older adults. The Journal of Primary Prevention 33, 137–152.
O'Reilly, SC, Muir, KR and Doherty, M (1998) Knee pain and disability in the Nottingham community: association with poor health status and psychological distress. Rheumatology 37, 870–873.
Quartana, PJ, Campbell, CM and Edwards, RR (2009) Pain catastrophizing: a critical review. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 9, 745–758.
Radloff, LS (1977) The CES-D scale. Applied Psychological Measurement 1, 385–401.
Roach, AR, Solberg Nes, L and Segerstrom, SC (2009) Executive functions, self-regulation, and chronic pain: a review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 37, 173–183.
Salkeld, G, Cumming, RG, Thomas, M and Szonyi, G (2000) Prospective study of the impact of fear of falling on activities of daily living, SF-36 scores, and nursing home admission. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A 55, M299–M305.
Sofi, F, Valecchi, D, Bacci, D, Abbate, R, Gensini, GF, Casini, A and Macchi, C (2011) Physical activity and risk of cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Journal of Internal Medicine 269, 107–117.
Stubbs, B, Vancampfort, D, Veronese, N, Thompson, T, Fornaro, M, Schofield, P and Koyanagi, A (2017) Depression and pain: primary data and meta-analysis among 237 952 people across 47 low- and middle-income countries. Psychological Medicine 47, 2906–2917.
Stubhaug, A, Breivik, H, Kvarstein, G, Romundstad, L, Rosseland, LA, Allen, SM and Borchgrevink, PC (2008) Assessment of pain. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia 101, 17–24.
Sturgeon, JA and Zautra, AJ (2013) State and trait pain catastrophizing and emotional health in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 45, 69–77.
Valkanova, V, Ebmeier, KP and Allan, CL (2013) CRP, IL-6 and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Affective Disorders 150, 736–744.
Verbrugge, LM and Juarez, L (2006) Profile of arthritis disability: II. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 55, 102–113.
Veronese, N, Koyanagi, A, Solmi, M, Thompson, T, Maggi, S, Schofield, P and Stubbs, B (2018) Pain is not associated with cognitive decline in older adults: a four-year longitudinal study. Maturitas 115, 92–96.
Yaffe, K, Kanaya, A, Lindquist, K, Simonsick, EM, Harris, T, Shorr, RI and Newman, AB (2004) The metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and risk of cognitive decline. JAMA 292, 2237–2242.