Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Executive functioning in high-IQ adults with ADHD

  • K. M. Antshel (a1), S. V. Faraone (a1), K. Maglione (a1), A. E. Doyle (a2), R. Fried (a2), L. J. Seidman (a2) and J. Biederman (a2)...

Abstract

Background

To examine the association between psychological tests of executive functioning and functional outcomes among high-IQ adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method

Subjects were high-IQ adults with (n=64) and without ADHD (n=53). Subjects were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests assessing executive functioning.

Results

High-IQ adults with ADHD performed less well than those without ADHD on several psychological tests of executive functioning, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color and Word Test, Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and an auditory continuous performance test (CPT). Test performance in the high-IQ adult ADHD group, however, was average. In the entire sample, performance on several tests of executive functioning including the ROCF and the CVLT were significant predictors of real-world functioning.

Conclusions

High-IQ adults with ADHD perform less well on tests of executive functioning relative to high-IQ control participants. Performance on several tests of executive functioning was a significant predictor of functioning.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Executive functioning in high-IQ adults with ADHD
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Executive functioning in high-IQ adults with ADHD
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Executive functioning in high-IQ adults with ADHD
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: S. V. Faraone, Ph.D., State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Syracuse, NY, USA. (Email: faraones@upstate.edu)

References

Hide All
Antshel, KM, Faraone, SV, Maglione, K, Doyle, A, Fried, R, Seidman, L, Biederman, J (2008). Temporal stability of ADHD in the high-IQ population: results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47, 817825.
Antshel, KM, Faraone, SV, Maglione, K, Doyle, A, Fried, R, Seidman, L, Biederman, J (2009). Is adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder a valid diagnosis in the presence of high IQ? Psychological Medicine 39, 13251335.
Antshel, KM, Faraone, SV, Stallone, K, Nave, A, Kaufmann, FA, Doyle, A, Fried, R, Seidman, L, Biederman, J (2007). Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder a valid diagnosis in the presence of high IQ? Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 48, 687694.
Barkley, RA, Fischer, M, Smallish, L, Fletcher, K (2006). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45, 192202.
Barkley, R, Murphy, K (2006). ADHD: A Clinical Workbook, 3rd edn. Guilford Press: New York.
Barkley, R, Murphy, K, Fischer, M (2007). ADHD in Adults: What the Science Says. Guilford Press: New York.
Biederman, J, Faraone, SV, Spencer, TJ, Mick, E, Monuteaux, MC, Aleardi, M (2006 a). Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: a controlled study of 1001 adults in the community. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67, 524540.
Biederman, J, Monuteaux, MC, Doyle, AE, Seidman, LJ, Wilens, TE, Ferrero, F, Morgan, CL, Faraone, SV (2004). Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72, 757766.
Biederman, J, Petty, C, Fried, R, Fontanella, J, Doyle, AE, Seidman, LJ, Faraone, SV (2006 b). Impact of psychometrically defined deficits of executive functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 17301738.
Biederman, J, Petty, CR, Doyle, AE, Spencer, T, Henderson, CS, Marion, B, Fried, R, Faraone, SV (2008 a). Stability of executive function deficits in girls with ADHD: a prospective longitudinal followup study into adolescence. Developmental Neuropsychology 33, 4461.
Biederman, J, Petty, CR, Fried, R, Doyle, AE, Spencer, T, Seidman, LJ, Gross, L, Poetzl, K, Faraone, SV (2007). Stability of executive function deficits into young adult years: a prospective longitudinal follow-up study of grown up males with ADHD. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116, 129136.
Biederman, J, Seidman, LJ, Petty, CR, Fried, R, Doyle, AE, Cohen, DR, Kenealy, DC, Faraone, SV (2008 b). Effects of stimulant medication on neuropsychological functioning in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69, 11501156.
Delis, DC, Freeland, J, Kramer, JH, Kaplan, E (1988). Integrating clinical assessment with cognitive neuroscience: construct validation of the California Verbal Learning Test. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56, 123130.
Delis, DC, Kramer, JH, Kaplan, E, Ober, BA (1987). CVLT: California Verbal Learning Test. The Psychological Corporation: San Antonio, TX.
Denckla, MB (1996). A theory and model of executive function: a neuropsychological perspective. In Attention, Memory and Executive Function (ed. Lyon, G. R. and Krasnegor, N. A.), pp. 263278. Paul H. Brookes Publishing: Baltimore, MD.
Downey, KK, Stelson, FW, Pomerleau, OF, Giordani, B (1997). Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: psychological test profiles in a clinical population. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 185, 3238.
Doyle, AE, Biederman, J, Seidman, LJ, Weber, W, Faraone, SV (2000). Diagnostic efficiency of neuropsychological test scores for discriminating boys with and without attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 477488.
Endicott, J, Nee, J, Harrison, W, Blumenthal, R (1993). Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire: a new measure. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 29, 321326.
Faraone, SV, Biederman, J, Doyle, A, Murray, K, Petty, C, Adamson, JJ, Seidman, L (2006 a). Neuropsychological studies of late onset and subthreshold diagnoses of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 60, 10811087.
Faraone, SV, Biederman, J, Spencer, T, Mick, E, Murray, K, Petty, C, Adamson, JJ, Monuteaux, MC (2006 b). Diagnosing adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: are late onset and subthreshold diagnoses valid? American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 17201729; quiz 1859.
Faraone, SV, Wilens, TE, Petty, C, Antshel, K, Spencer, T, Biederman, J (2007). Substance use among ADHD adults: implications of late onset and subthreshold diagnoses. American Journal on Addictions 16 (Suppl. 1), 2432; quiz 33–34.
First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M, Williams, JB (1997). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Clinical Version (SCID-CV) (User's Guide and Interview). American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.
Frazier, TW, Demaree, HA, Youngstrom, EA (2004). Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology 18, 543555.
Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, Corley, RP, Young, SE, Defries, JC, Hewitt, JK (2006). Not all executive functions are related to intelligence. Psychological Science 17, 172179.
Golden, JC (1978). Stroop Color and Word Test. Stoelting Company: Chicago, IL.
Harrison, AG, Edwards, MJ, Parker, KC (2007). Identifying students faking ADHD: preliminary findings and strategies for detection. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 22, 577588.
Heaton, RK, Chelune, GJ, Talley, JL, Kay, GG, Curtiss, G (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual: Revised and Expanded. Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Hervey, AS, Epstein, JN, Curry, JF (2004). Neuropsychology of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology 18, 485503.
Hollingshead, AB (1975). Four Factor Index of Social Status. Yale Press: New Haven, CT.
Holmes-Bernstein, J, Waber, DP (1996). Developmental Scoring System for the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure. Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Jung, RE, Yeo, RA, Chiulli, SJ, Sibbitt, WL Jr., Brooks, WM (2000). Myths of neuropsychology: intelligence, neurometabolism, and cognitive ability. Clinical Neuropsychologist 14, 535545.
Kremen, WS, Seidman, LJ, Faraone, SV, Tsuang, MT (2008). IQ decline in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia: methodology and interpretation. Psychiatry Research 158, 181194.
Lovecky, DV, Silverman, LK (1998). Gifted children with AD/HD. Paper presented to the Panel of the NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Bethesda, MD, 16–18 November 1998.
Lovett, BJ, Lewandowski, LJ (2006). Gifted students with learning disabilities: who are they? Journal of Learning Disabilities 39, 515527.
Mahone, EM, Hagelthorn, KM, Cutting, LE, Schuerholz, LJ, Pelletier, SF, Rawlins, C, Singer, HS, Denckla, MB (2002). Effects of IQ on executive function measures in children with ADHD. Child Neuropsychology 8, 5265.
Orvaschel, H (1994). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children – Epidemiologic Version 5 (K-SADS-E). Nova Southeastern University: Ft Lauderdale, FL.
Reader, MJ, Harris, EL, Schuerholz, LJ, Denckla, MB (1994). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and executive dysfunction. Developmental Neuropsychology 10, 493512.
Rey, A (1941). Psychological examination of traumatic encephalopathy. Archives de Psychologie 28, 286340.
Sattler, J (2001). Assessment of Children: Cognitive Applications, 4th edn. Jerome M. Sattler Publishers: San Diego, CA.
Schuck, SE, Crinella, FM (2005). Why children with ADHD do not have low IQs. Journal of Learning Disabilities 38, 262280.
Seidman, LJ, Breiter, HC, Goodman, JM, Goldstein, JM, Woodruff, PW, O'Craven, K, Savoy, R, Tsuang, MT, Rosen, BR (1998). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of auditory vigilance with low and high information processing demands. Neuropsychology 12, 505518.
Sullivan, BK, May, K, Galbally, L (2007). Symptom exaggeration by college adults in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disorder assessments. Applied Neuropsychology 14, 189207.
Teknos, KS, Bernstein, JH, Seidman, LJ (2003). Performance of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disordered children on the Rey–Osterrieth complex figure. In The Rey–Osterrieth Handbook (ed. Knight, J. and Kaplan, E. F.), pp. 433438. Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Vance, AL, Maruff, P, Barnett, R (2003). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type: better executive function performance with longer-term psychostimulant medication. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 37, 570576.
Wechsler, D (1993). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Third Edition. Psychological Corporation: San Antonio, TX.
Weiss, G, Hechtman, L (1993). Hyperactive Children Grown Up, 2nd edn. Guilford Press: New York.
Weiss, MD, Weiss, JR (2004). A guide to the treatment of adults with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 (Suppl. 3), 2737.
Wender, PH (1995). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults. Oxford University Press: New York.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed