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Factors that mediate between child sexual abuse and adult psychological outcome

  • S. E. Romans (a1), J. L. Martin (a1), J. C. Anderson (a1), M. L. O'Shea (a1) and P. E. Mullen (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

The psychological outcome for a random community sample of women who had experienced significant childhood sexual abuse was assessed, using two outcome measures: (i) psychiatric morbidity (measured with the short PSE); (ii) self-esteem. Sexual abused women with a good outcome, i.e. who were not a PSE ‘case’ or who had high self-esteem were compared with abused women with a poor outcome. This paper describes the post-abuse factors that modified the two outcomes.

In general, a range of variables, all correlated with each other in a complex manner, distinguished good outcome subjects from poor outcome subjects. Post-abuse adolescent variables included family factors (poor mother–father and parent–child relationships), high school factors (poor academic, sporting and social performance) and early pregnancy. Women who had a good adolescent relationship with their father did better than expected statistically. Sport emerged as an alternative at secondary school to academic achievement in catalysing a good psychological outcome.

Adult factors included the quality of relationship with partner, which was associated with a good outcome on both measures. Current paid employment was linked to high self-esteem but not to lowered psychiatric morbidity, while the converse applied for high socio-economic status. These findings imply that different processes operate for each outcome measure.

A clear recognition by the school of childhood sexual abuse may help to provide the opportunity for the girl to experience success in some arena; this in turn may protect her against the likely adult consequences of low self-esteem and increased psychiatric morbidity.

Corresponding author
1Address for correspondence: Professor S. E. Romans, Department of Psychological Medicine, PO Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand.
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