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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Tsitsipa, Eirini and Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N. 2015. The neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of data. Annals of General Psychiatry, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,


    Suwalska, Aleksandra and Łojko, Dorota 2014. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder. The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 2014, p. 1.


    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E. and Rossell, Susan L. 2013. Auditory-prosodic processing in bipolar disorder; from sensory perception to emotion. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 151, Issue. 3, p. 1102.


    Torres, Imma Solé, Brisa Vieta, Eduard and Martinez-Aran, Anabel 2012. Neurocognitive impairment in the bipolar spectrum. Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 43.


    Bücker, Joana Popuri, Swetha Muralidharan, Kesavan Kozicky, Jan-Marie Baitz, Heather A. Honer, William G. Torres, Ivan J. and Yatham, Lakshmi N. 2014. Sex differences in cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who recently recovered from a first episode of mania: Data from the Systematic Treatment Optimization Program for Early Mania (STOP-EM). Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 155, p. 162.


    Wegbreit, Ezra Cushman, Grace K. Weissman, Alexandra B. Bojanek, Erin Kim, Kerri L. Leibenluft, Ellen and Dickstein, Daniel P. 2016. Reversal-learning deficits in childhood-onset bipolar disorder across the transition from childhood to young adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 203, p. 46.


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Gender differences in immediate memory in bipolar disorder

  • D. Carrus (a1), T. Christodoulou (a1), M. Hadjulis (a1), M. Haldane (a1), A. Galea (a2), A. Koukopoulos (a3), V. Kumari (a2) and S. Frangou (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709991644
  • Published online: 06 November 2009
Abstract
Background

Gender is known to modulate the clinical course and severity of bipolar disorder (BD). Although cognitive abnormalities are an established feature of BD, there is limited information regarding whether gender also influences the pattern and severity of cognitive impairment.

Method

We evaluated the performance of 86 remitted patients with BD, type 1, (BD-I) (36 male and 50 female) and 46 healthy participants (21 male and 25 female) on tasks of general intellectual ability, memory encoding, recognition and retrieval, response inhibition and executive function (abstraction and perseveration). The impact of illness severity in patients was assessed using the global assessment of functioning (GAF).

Results

We found a gender effect and an interaction between diagnosis and gender on immediate memory, implicating encoding and retrieval processes, both showing male BD-I patients being disadvantaged compared with female patients and healthy controls. Immediate memory correlated with GAF scores and this association was statistically significant for male BD-I patients.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that gender differences in BD-I are associated with memory function, particularly processes relating to encoding and retrieval, and may contribute to poor functional outcome particularly in men.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr S. Frangou, Section of Neurobiology of Psychosis (PO66), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, LondonSE5 8AF, UK. (Email: sophia.frangou@kcl.ac.uk)
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Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
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