Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 71
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Abramovitch, Amitai 2016. Misdiagnosis of ADHD in Individuals Diagnosed With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Guidelines for Practitioners. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 225.

    Gindina, Elena and Gaysina, Darya 2016. Behavioural Genetics for Education.

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf Lichtenstein, Paul D'Onofrio, Brian M. and Larsson, Henrik 2015. Codevelopment of ADHD and externalizing behavior from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 56, Issue. 6, p. 640.

    Lövenhag, Sara Larm, Peter Åslund, Cecilia and Nilsson, Kent W. 2015. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue. 5, p. 489.

    Rende, Richard and Waldman, Irwin 2015. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Bruxel, Estela Maria Akutagava-Martins, Glaucia Chiyoko Salatino-Oliveira, Angelica Contini, Verônica Kieling, Christian Hutz, Mara Helena and Rohde, Luis Augusto 2014. ADHD pharmacogenetics across the life cycle: New findings and perspectives. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Vol. 165, Issue. 4, p. 263.

    Kerekes, Nóra Lundström, Sebastian Chang, Zheng Tajnia, Armin Jern, Patrick Lichtenstein, Paul Nilsson, Thomas and Anckarsäter, Henrik 2014. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study. PeerJ, Vol. 2, p. e359.

    Lundström, Sebastian Forsman, Mats Larsson, Henrik Kerekes, Nora Serlachius, Eva Långström, Niklas and Lichtenstein, Paul 2014. Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Violent Criminality: A Sibling Control Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 44, Issue. 11, p. 2707.

    Puri, Basant K. and Martins, Julian G. 2014. Which polyunsaturated fatty acids are active in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving PUFA supplementation? A fatty acid validated meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), Vol. 90, Issue. 5, p. 179.

    Faraone, Stephen V. and Doyle, Alysa E. 2013. Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics.

    Hyde, Luke W. Shaw, Daniel S. and Hariri, Ahmad R. 2013. Understanding youth antisocial behavior using neuroscience through a developmental psychopathology lens: Review, integration, and directions for research. Developmental Review, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 168.

    Riddle, Mark A. Yershova, Kseniya Lazzaretto, Deborah Paykina, Natalya Yenokyan, Gayane Greenhill, Laurence Abikoff, Howard Vitiello, Benedetto Wigal, Tim McCracken, James T. Kollins, Scott H. Murray, Desiree W. Wigal, Sharon Kastelic, Elizabeth McGough, James J. dosReis, Susan Bauzó-Rosario, Audrey Stehli, Annamarie and Posner, Kelly 2013. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 264.

    Taylor, Jeanette Allan, Nicholas Mikolajewski, Amy J. and Hart, Sara A. 2013. Common genetic and nonshared environmental factors contribute to the association between socioemotional dispositions and the externalizing factor in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 54, Issue. 1, p. 67.

    Beaver, Kevin M. Nedelec, Joseph L. Rowland, Meghan W. and Schwartz, Joseph A. 2012. Genetic Risks and ADHD Symptomatology: Exploring the Effects of Parental Antisocial Behaviors in an Adoption-Based Study. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Vol. 43, Issue. 2, p. 293.

    Boisvert, Danielle Wright, John Paul Knopik, Valerie and Vaske, Jamie 2012. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Low Self-Control and Delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Vol. 28, Issue. 3, p. 477.

    Hicks, Brian M. Iacono, William G. and McGue, Matt 2012. Index of the transmissible common liability to addiction: Heritability and prospective associations with substance abuse and related outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 123, p. S18.

    Lahey, Benjamin B. and Waldman, Irwin D. 2012. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and causal structure of conduct disorder in the broader context of prevalent forms of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 53, Issue. 5, p. 536.

    Stephens, Sarah H. Hoft, Nicole R. Schlaepfer, Isabel R. Young, Susan E. Corley, Robin C. McQueen, Matthew B. Hopfer, Christian Crowley, Thomas Stallings, Michael Hewitt, John and Ehringer, Marissa A. 2012. Externalizing Behaviors are Associated with SNPs in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 Gene Cluster. Behavior Genetics, Vol. 42, Issue. 3, p. 402.

    Toplak, Maggie E. Sorge, Geoff B. Flora, David B. Chen, Wai Banaschewski, Tobias Buitelaar, Jan Ebstein, Richard Eisenberg, Jacques Franke, Barbara Gill, Michael Miranda, Ana Oades, Robert D. Roeyers, Herbert Rothenberger, Aribert Sergeant, Joseph Sonuga-Barke, Edmund Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph Thompson, Margaret Tannock, Rosemary Asherson, Philip and Faraone, Stephen V. 2012. The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: invariant across age and national groupings?. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 53, Issue. 3, p. 292.

    Villodas, Miguel T Pfiffner, Linda J and McBurnett, Keith 2012. Prevention of serious conduct problems in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Vol. 12, Issue. 10, p. 1253.


Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement

  • T. S. NADDER (a1), M. RUTTER (a1), J. L. SILBERG (a1), H. H. MAES (a1) and L. J. EAVES (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2002

Background. Previous studies have shown that the presence of conduct disorder may contribute to the persistence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology into adolescence; however, the aetiological relationship between the two phenotypes remains undetermined. Furthermore, studies utilizing multiple informants have indicated that teacher ratings of these phenotypes are more valid than maternal reports.

Methods. The genetic structure underlying the persistence of ADHD and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) symptomatologies as rated by mothers and teachers at two occasions of measurement was investigated on a sample of 494 male and 603 female same sex adolescent twin pairs participating in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD).

Results. Using structural modelling techniques, one common genetic factor was shown to govern the covariation between the phenotypes across informants and occasion of measurement with additional genetic factors specific to ODD/CD symptomatology and persistence of symptomatology at reassessment. Genetic structures underlying the phenotypes were, to some extent, informant dependent.

Conclusions. The findings indicate that it is unlikely that the co-morbidity between ADHD and ODD/CD is due to environmental influences that are independent of ADHD. Rather it is likely to be due to a shared genetic liability either operating directly, or indirectly through gene–environment correlations or interactions. The covariation between phenotypes across informants and time is governed by a common set of genes, but it seems that ODD/CD is also influenced by additional genetic factors. Developmentally, different forms of genetic liability control ADHD in males and inattention in females.

Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Dr Teresa S. Nadder, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 980583, Richmond, VA 23298-0583, USA.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *