Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 52
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hadziabdic, Emina Safipour, Jalal Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta and Hultsjö, Sally 2016. Swedish version of measuring cultural awareness in nursing students: validity and reliability test. BMC Nursing, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    O'Donoghue, Brian Nelson, Barnaby Yuen, Hok Pan Lane, Abbie Wood, Stephen Thompson, Andrew Lin, Ashleigh McGorry, Patrick and Yung, Alison R. 2015. Social environmental risk factors for transition to psychosis in an Ultra-High Risk population. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 161, Issue. 2-3, p. 150.

    Bansal, Narinder Bhopal, Raj Netto, Gina Lyons, Donald Steiner, Markus F.C. and Sashidharan, Sashi P. 2014. Disparate patterns of hospitalisation reflect unmet needs and persistent ethnic inequalities in mental health care: the Scottish health and ethnicity linkage study. Ethnicity & Health, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 217.

    Leong, Frederick T.L. Eggerth, Donald E. and Flynn, Michael A. 2014. Contemporary Occupational Health Psychology.

    Siddiqui, Faiza Lindblad, Ulf and Bennet, Louise 2014. Physical inactivity is strongly associated with anxiety and depression in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    2014. The Concept of Schizophrenia: From Unity to Diversity. Advances in Psychiatry, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Khuwaja, Salma A. Selwyn, Beatrice J. Mgbere, Osaro Khuwaja, Alam Kapadia, Asha McCurdy, Sheryl and Hsu, Chiehwen E. 2013. Factors Associated with the Process of Adaptation Among Pakistani Adolescent Females Living in United States. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 315.

    Safipour, Jalal Schopflocher, Donald Higginbottom, Gina and Emami, Azita 2013. Socioeconomic factors and mental health of Swedish adolescents – a cross-sectional study among Stockholm high-school students aged 15–19 years. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, p. 120.

    de Wit, Matty A. S. Tuinebreijer, Wilco C. van Brussel, Giel H. A. and Selten, Jean-Paul 2012. Ethnic differences in risk of acute compulsory admission in Amsterdam, 1996–2005. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 111.

    Leong, Frederick T.L. Eggerth, Donald Flynn, Michael Roberts, Rashaun and Mak, Stanton 2012. The Role of the Economic Crisis on Occupational Stress and Well Being.

    Pooremamali, Parvin Eklund, Mona Östman, Margareta and Persson, Dennis 2012. Muslim Middle Eastern clients' reflections on their relationship with their occupational therapists in mental health care. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, Vol. 19, Issue. 4, p. 328.

    Ampadu, Esther 2011. The Impact of Immigration on the Development of Adolescent Schizophrenia. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 161.

    Jablensky, Assen Kirkbride, James B. and Jones, Peter B. 2011. Schizophrenia.

    Kirkbride, J. B. and Jones, P. B. 2011. The Prevention of Schizophrenia--What Can We Learn From Eco-Epidemiology?. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 37, Issue. 2, p. 262.

    Veling, Wim and Susser, Ezra 2011. Migration and psychotic disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 65.

    Archie, S. Akhtar-Danesh, N. Norman, R. Malla, A. Roy, P. and Zipursky, R. B. 2010. Ethnic Diversity and Pathways to Care for a First Episode of Psychosis in Ontario. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 688.

    Marie, Norredam Ana, Garcia-Lopez Niels, Keiding and Allan, Krasnik 2010. Risk of mental disorders in family reunification migrants and native Danes: a register-based historically prospective cohort study. International Journal of Public Health, Vol. 55, Issue. 5, p. 413.

    Corcoran, C. Perrin, M. Harlap, S. Deutsch, L. Fennig, S. Manor, O. Nahon, D. Kimhy, D. Malaspina, D. and Susser, E. 2009. Incidence of Schizophrenia Among Second-Generation Immigrants in the Jerusalem Perinatal Cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 35, Issue. 3, p. 596.

    Fung, Wai Lun Alan Bhugra, Dinesh and Jones, Peter B. 2009. Ethnicity and mental health: the example of schizophrenia and related psychoses in migrant populations in the Western world. Psychiatry, Vol. 8, Issue. 9, p. 335.

    Hultsjö, Sally Berterö, Carina and Hjelm, Katarina 2009. Foreign-born and Swedish-born families' perceptions of psychosis care. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 62.


Increased rates of psychosis among immigrants to Sweden: is migration a risk factor for psychosis ?

  • K. ZOLKOWSKA (a1), E. CANTOR-GRAAE (a1) and T. F. McNEIL (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2001

Background. Previous studies have shown high rates of psychosis among Afro-Caribbean immigrants to the UK and immigrants to the Netherlands. Rates of schizophrenia-like psychoses (SLP), i.e. schizophrenia or other non-affective psychosis, among the native-born and immigrant populations were assessed in Malmö, the city in Sweden with the highest proportion of immigrants.

Methods. All adult patients admitted for in-patient psychiatric treatment in Malmö during the course of a 1-year period (N = 1162) were studied with regard to ethnicity and SLP diagnosis. A smaller sample consisting only of first-onset SLP cases (regardless of in- or out-patient status) was also studied (N = 56). Risks for admission and first-onset were calculated on the basis of current background population figures for Malmö.

Results. Compared with those who were native-born, immigrants had increased risk for admission for SLP, with a similar tendency for increased risk for first-onset of SLP. Relative risk for SLP admission was most markedly increased in immigrants from East-Africa. Background factors specifically associated with migration (e.g. extreme duress) did not appear to contribute strongly to SLP in immigrants.

Conclusion. While the current results add to the growing body of evidence showing increased risk for psychosis in immigrants, vulnerability to psychosis may have been determined by factors other than the migration process.

Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Dr Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden S-205 02.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *