Skip to main content

Learning to trust: social feedback normalizes trust behavior in first-episode psychosis and clinical high risk

  • Imke L. J. Lemmers-Jansen (a1), Anne-Kathrin J. Fett (a2) (a3) (a4), Esther Hanssen (a1), Dick J. Veltman (a5) (a6) and Lydia Krabbendam (a3) (a4)...

Psychosis is characterized by problems in social functioning that exist well before illness onset, and in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Trust is an essential element for social interactions that is impaired in psychosis. In the trust game, chronic patients showed reduced baseline trust, impaired response to positive social feedback, and attenuated brain activation in reward and mentalizing areas. We investigated whether first-episode psychosis patients (FEP) and CHR show similar abnormalities in the neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying trust.


Twenty-two FEP, 17 CHR, and 43 healthy controls performed two trust games, with a cooperative and an unfair partner in the fMRI scanner. Region of interest analyses were performed on mentalizing and reward processing areas, during the investment and outcome phases of the games.


Compared with healthy controls, FEP and CHR showed reduced baseline trust, but like controls, learned to trust in response to cooperative and unfair feedback. Symptom severity was not associated with baseline trust, however in FEP associated with reduced response to feedback. The only group differences in brain activation were that CHR recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) more than FEP and controls during investment in the unfair condition. This hyper-activation in CHR was associated with greater symptom severity.


Reduced baseline trust may be associated with risk for psychotic illness, or generally with poor mental health. Feedback learning is still intact in CHR and FEP, as opposed to chronic patients. CHR however show distinct neural activation patterns of hyper-activation of the TPJ.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Imke L.J. Lemmers-Jansen, E-mail:
Hide All
Addington, J and Addington, D (2005) Patterns of premorbid functioning in first episode psychosis: relationship to 2-year outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 112(1), 4046.
American Psychiatric Association (2000) DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, vol. 75, pp. 7885.
Ballon, JS, Kaur, T, Marks, II and Cadenhead, KS (2007) Social functioning in young people at risk for schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 151(1), 2935.
Berg, J, Dickhaut, J and McCabe, K (1995) Trust, reciprocity, and social history. Games and Economic Behavior 10(1), 122142.
Bora, E and Pantelis, C (2013) Theory of mind impairments in first-episode psychosis, individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 144(1), 3136.
Broome, MR, Day, F, Valli, I, Valmaggia, L, Johns, L, Howes, O, Garety, P and McGuire, P (2012) Delusional ideation, manic symptomatology and working memory in a cohort at clinical high risk for psychosis: a longitudinal study. European Psychiatry 27(4), 258263.
Broome, MR, Fusar-Poli, P, Matthiasson, P, Woolley, JB, Valmaggia, L, Johns, LC, Tabraham, P, Bramon, E, Williams, SC and Brammer, MJ (2010) Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in the ‘at-risk mental state’. Psychological Medicine 40(12), 19871999.
Broome, MR, Woolley, JB, Johns, LC, Valmaggia, LR, Tabraham, P, Gafoor, R, Bramon, E and McGuire, PK (2005) Outreach and support in south London (OASIS): implementation of a clinical service for prodromal psychosis and the at risk mental state. European Psychiatry 20(5), 372378.
Brüne, M, Özgürdal, S, Ansorge, N, von Reventlow, HG, Peters, S, Nicolas, V, Tegenthoff, M, Juckel, G and Lissek, S (2011) An fMRI study of ‘theory of mind’ in at-risk states of psychosis: comparison with manifest schizophrenia and healthy controls. Neuroimage 55(1), 329337.
Campellone, TR, Fisher, AJ and Kring, AM (2016) Using social outcomes to inform decision-making in schizophrenia: relationships with symptoms and functioning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 125(2), 310.
Cannon, TD, Cadenhead, K, Cornblatt, B, Woods, SW, Addington, J, Walker, E, Seidman, LJ, Perkins, D, Tsuang, M and McGlashan, T (2008) Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk: a multisite longitudinal study in North America. Archives of General Psychiatry 65(1), 2837.
Corcoran, C, Kimhy, D, Parrilla-Escobar, M, Cressman, V, Stanford, A, Thompson, J, David, SB, Crumbley, A, Schobel, S and Moore, H (2011) The relationship of social function to depressive and negative symptoms in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. Psychological Medicine 41(02), 251261.
Cornblatt, BA, Auther, AM, Niendam, T, Smith, CW, Zinberg, J, Bearden, CE and Cannon, TD (2007) Preliminary findings for two new measures of social and role functioning in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33(3), 688702.
Couture, SM, Penn, DL and Roberts, DL (2006) The functional significance of social cognition in schizophrenia: a review. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32(Suppl. 1), S44S63.
Csukly, G, Polgár, P, Tombor, L, Réthelyi, J and Kéri, S (2011) Are patients with schizophrenia rational maximizers? Evidence from an ultimatum game study. Psychiatry Research 187(1), 1117.
Declerck, CH, Boone, C and Emonds, G (2013) When do people cooperate? The neuroeconomics of prosocial decision making. Brain and Cognition 81(1), 95117.
Demjaha, A, Valmaggia, L, Stahl, D, Byrne, M and McGuire, P (2010) Disorganization/cognitive and negative symptom dimensions in the at-risk mental state predict subsequent transition to psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(2), 351359.
Derks, J (2015) Adolescent Social Cognition (doctoral dissertation). Faculty of Psychology and Educational sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Derntl, B, Michel, TM, Prempeh, P, Backes, V, Finkelmeyer, A, Schneider, F and Habel, U (2015) Empathy in individuals clinically at risk for psychosis: brain and behaviour. The British Journal of Psychiatry 207, 407413.
Fehr, E and Camerer, CF (2007) Social neuroeconomics: the neural circuitry of social preferences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11(10), 419427.
Fett, A-K, Gromann, P, Shergill, S and Krabbendam, L (2015) Trust vs. Paranoia: The Dynamics of Social Interaction in Early and Chronic Psychosis, SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN. OXFORD OX2 6DP, ENGLAND: OXFORD UNIV PRESS GREAT CLARENDON ST.
Fett, A-K, Shergill, S, Korver-Nieberg, N, Yakub, F, Gromann, PM and Krabbendam, L (2016) Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis. Psychological Medicine 46(7), 1437.
Fett, A-K, Shergill, SS, Joyce, DW, Riedl, A, Strobel, M, Gromann, PM and Krabbendam, L (2012) To trust or not to trust: the dynamics of social interaction in psychosis. Brain 135(3), 976984.
Fletcher, PC, Happe, F, Frith, U, Baker, SC, Dolan, RJ, Frackowiak, RS and Frith, CD (1995) Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study of ‘theory of mind’ in story comprehension. Cognition 57(2), 109128.
Frith, CD and Frith, U (2006) The neural basis of mentalizing. Neuron 50(4), 531534.
Fusar-Poli, P, Broome, MR, Matthiasson, P, Woolley, JB, Johns, L, Tabraham, P, Bramon, E, Valmaggia, L, Williams, S and McGuire, P (2010 a) Spatial working memory in individuals at high risk for psychosis: longitudinal fMRI study. Schizophrenia Research 123(1), 4552.
Fusar-Poli, P, Broome, MR, Woolley, JB, Johns, LC, Tabraham, P, Bramon, E, Valmaggia, L, Williams, S and McGuire, P (2011) Altered brain function directly related to structural abnormalities in people at ultra high risk of psychosis: longitudinal VBM-fMRI study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 45(2), 190198.
Fusar-Poli, P, Borgwardt, S, Bechdolf, A, Addington, J, Riecher-Rössler, A, Schultze-Lutter, F, Keshavan, M, Wood, S, Ruhrmann, S and Seidman, LJ (2013) The psychosis high risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review. JAMA Psychiatry 70(1), 107.
Fusar-Poli, P, Byrne, M, Valmaggia, L, Day, F, Tabraham, P, Johns, L, McGuire, P and Team, O (2010 b) Social dysfunction predicts two years clinical outcome in people at ultra high risk for psychosis. Journal of Psychiatric Research 44(5), 294301.
Fusar-Poli, P, Nelson, B, Valmaggia, L, Yung, AR and McGuire, PK (2014) Comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in 509 individuals with an at-risk mental state: impact on psychopathology and transition to psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40(1), 120131.
Gallagher, HL and Frith, CD (2003) Functional imaging of ‘theory of mind’. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(2), 7783.
Goldman, HH, Skodol, AE and Lave, TR (1992) Revising axis V for DSM-IV: a review of measures of social functioning. American Journal of Psychiatry 149(9), 11481156.
Green, MF, Horan, WP and Lee, J (2015) Social cognition in schizophrenia. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 16(10), 620.
Green, MF and Leitman, DI (2008) Social cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34(4), 670672.
Gromann, PM, Heslenfeld, DJ, Fett, A-K, Joyce, DW, Shergill, SS and Krabbendam, L (2013) Trust versus paranoia: abnormal response to social reward in psychotic illness. Brain 136, 19681975.
Gromann, PM, Shergill, S, de Haan, L, Meewis, D, Fett, A-K, Korver-Nieberg, N and Krabbendam, L (2014) Reduced brain reward response during cooperation in first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis: an fMRI study. Psychological Medicine 44(16), 34453454.
Hertwig, R and Ortmann, A (2001) Experimental practices in economics: a methodological challenge for psychologists? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24(03), 383403.
Horat, SK, Favre, G, Prévot, A, Ventura, J, Herrmann, FR, Gothuey, I, Merlo, MC and Missonnier, P (2017) Impaired social cognition in schizophrenia during the Ultimatum Game: an EEG study. Schizophrenia Research 192, 308316.
Ising, HK, Kraan, TC, Rietdijk, J, Dragt, S, Klaassen, RM, Boonstra, N, Nieman, DH, Willebrands-Mendrik, M, van den Berg, DP and Linszen, DH (2016) Four-year follow-up of cognitive behavioral therapy in persons at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis: the Dutch early detection intervention evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42(5), 12431252.
Jang, JH, Shin, NY, Shim, G, Park, HY, Kim, E, Jang, G-E, Kwon, SJ, Hur, J-W, An, SK and Kwon, JS (2011) Longitudinal patterns of social functioning and conversion to psychosis in subjects at ultra-high risk. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 45(9), 763770.
Johnson, ND and Mislin, AA (2011) Trust games: a meta-analysis. Journal of Economic Psychology 32(5), 865889.
Juckel, G, Friedel, E, Koslowski, M, Witthaus, H, Özgürdal, S, Gudlowski, Y, Knutson, B, Wrase, J, Brüne, M and Heinz, A (2012) Ventral striatal activation during reward processing in subjects with ultra-high risk for schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology 66(1), 5056.
Kay, S, Fiszbein, A and Opler, L (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13(2), 261.
Kelleher, I, Keeley, H, Corcoran, P, Lynch, F, Fitzpatrick, C, Devlin, N, Molloy, C, Roddy, S, Clarke, MC and Harley, M (2012) Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry 201(1), 2632.
King-Casas, B, Tomlin, D, Anen, C, Camerer, CF, Quartz, SR and Montague, PR (2005) Getting to know you: reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. Science 308(5718), 7883.
Krueger, F, McCabe, K, Moll, J, Kriegeskorte, N, Zahn, R, Strenziok, M, Heinecke, A and Grafman, J (2007) Neural correlates of trust. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(50), 2008420089.
Lavoie, M-A, Lacroix, JB, Godmaire-Duhaime, F, Jackson, PL and Achim, AM (2013) Social cognition in first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research 209(2), 129135.
Lemmers-Jansen, ILJ, Krabbendam, L, Veltman, DJ and Fett, A-KJ (2017) Boys vs. girls: gender differences in the neural development of trust and reciprocity depend on social context. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 25, 235245.
Li, W, Tol, MJ, Li, M, Miao, W, Jiao, Y, Heinze, HJ, Bogerts, B, He, H and Walter, M (2014) Regional specificity of sex effects on subcortical volumes across the lifespan in healthy aging. Human Brain Mapping 35(1), 238247.
Locey, ML, Jones, BA and Rachlin, H (2011) Real and hypothetical rewards. Judgment and Decision Making 6(6), 552.
Madden, GJ, Begotka, AM, Raiff, BR and Kastern, LL (2003) Delay discounting of real and hypothetical rewards. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 11(2), 139.
Marjoram, D, Job, DE, Whalley, HC, Gountouna, V-E, McIntosh, AM, Simonotto, E, Cunningham-Owens, D, Johnstone, EC and Lawrie, S (2006) A visual joke fMRI investigation into Theory of Mind and enhanced risk of schizophrenia. Neuroimage 31(4), 18501858.
McCleery, A, Horan, WP and Green, MF (2014) Social cognition during the early phase of schizophrenia. In Lysaker P, Dimaggio G and Brüne M (eds), Social Cognition and Metacognition in Schizophrenia. pp. 4967.
McGorry, P and van Os, J (2013) Redeeming diagnosis in psychiatry: timing versus specificity. The Lancet 381(9863), 343345.
Milev, P, Ho, B-C, Arndt, S and Andreasen, NC (2005) Predictive values of neurocognition and negative symptoms on functional outcome in schizophrenia: a longitudinal first-episode study with 7-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry 162(3), 495506.
Modinos, G, Allen, P, Frascarelli, M, Tognin, S, Valmaggia, L, Xenaki, L, Keedwell, P, Broome, M, Valli, I and Woolley, J (2014) Are we really mapping psychosis risk? Neuroanatomical signature of affective disorders in subjects at ultra high risk. Psychological Medicine 44(16), 34913501.
Möller, H-J, Llorca, P-M, Sacchetti, E, Martin, SD, Medori, R, Parellada, E and Group, SS (2005) Efficacy and safety of direct transition to risperidone long-acting injectable in patients treated with various antipsychotic therapies. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 20(3), 121130.
Morosini, P, Magliano, L, Brambilla, L, Ugolini, S and Pioli, R (2000) Development, reliability and acceptability of a new version of the DSM-IV Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) to assess routine social functioning. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 101(4), 323329.
Morrison, AP, French, P, Stewart, SL, Birchwood, M, Fowler, D, Gumley, AI, Jones, PB, Bentall, RP, Lewis, SW and Murray, GK (2012) Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at risk of psychosis: multisite randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 344, e2233.
Nelson, B, Yuen, K and Yung, A (2011) Ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis criteria: are there different levels of risk for transition to psychosis? Schizophrenia Research 125(1), 6268.
Niendam, TA, Bearden, CE, Zinberg, J, Johnson, JK, O'Brien, M and Cannon, TD (2007) The course of neurocognition and social functioning in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33(3), 772781.
Phillips, LJ, Nelson, B, Yuen, HP, Francey, SM, Simmons, M, Stanford, C, Ross, M, Kelly, D, Baker, K and Conus, P (2009) Randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis: study design and baseline characteristics. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 43(9), 818829.
Pukrop, R, Schultze-Lutter, F, Ruhrmann, S, Brockhaus-Dumke, A, Tendolkar, I, Bechdolf, A, Matuschek, E and Klosterkötter, J (2006) Neurocognitive functioning in subjects at risk for a first episode of psychosis compared with first-and multiple-episode schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 28(8), 13881407.
Rietdijk, J, Klaassen, R, Ising, H, Dragt, S, Nieman, D, Van de Kamp, J, Cuijpers, P, Linszen, D and Van der Gaag, M (2012) Detection of people at risk of developing a first psychosis: comparison of two recruitment strategies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 126(1), 2130.
Rilling, JK and Sanfey, AG (2011) The neuroscience of social decision-making. Annual Review of Psychology 62, 2348.
Ruhrmann, S, Schultze-Lutter, F and Klosterkötter, J (2010) Probably at-risk, but certainly ill – advocating the introduction of a psychosis spectrum disorder in DSM-V. Schizophrenia Research 120(1), 2337.
Saxe, R and Kanwisher, N (2003) People thinking about thinking people: the role of the temporo-parietal junction in ‘theory of mind’. Neuroimage 19(4), 18351842.
Shim, G, Kang, D-H, Sun Chung, Y, Young Yoo, S, Young Shin, N and Soo Kwon, J (2008) Social functioning deficits in young people at risk for schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 42(8), 678685.
Smieskova, R, Marmy, J, Schmidt, A, Bendfeldt, K, Riecher-Rossler, A, Walter, M, E Lang, U and Borgwardt, S (2013) Do subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis differ from those with a genetic high risk? A systematic review of structural and functional brain abnormalities. Current Medicinal Chemistry 20(3), 467481.
SPM (2009) Statistical Parametric Mapping. London, UK: Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. Available online:
StataCorp (2013) Stata Statistical Software Release 13. TX: StataCorp LP.
Strauss, GP, Waltz, JA and Gold, JM (2013) A review of reward processing and motivational impairment in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40(Suppl_2), S107S116.
Thompson, A, Papas, A, Bartholomeusz, C, Allott, K, Amminger, GP, Nelson, B, Wood, S and Yung, A (2012) Social cognition in clinical ‘at risk’ for psychosis and first episode psychosis populations. Schizophrenia Research 141(2), 204209.
Valmaggia, L, Stahl, D, Yung, A, Nelson, B, Fusar-Poli, P, McGorry, P and McGuire, P (2013) Negative psychotic symptoms and impaired role functioning predict transition outcomes in the at-risk mental state: a latent class cluster analysis study. Psychological Medicine 43(11), 23112325.
van den Bos, W, van Dijk, E, Westenberg, M, Rombouts, SA and Crone, EA (2011) Changing brains, changing perspectives the neurocognitive development of reciprocity. Psychological Science 22(1), 6070.
van der Gaag, M, Nieman, DH, Rietdijk, J, Dragt, S, Ising, HK, Klaassen, RM, Koeter, M, Cuijpers, P, Wunderink, L and Linszen, DH (2012) Cognitive behavioral therapy for subjects at ultrahigh risk for developing psychosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(6), 11801188.
van Os, J and Linscott, RJ (2012) Introduction: the extended psychosis phenotype – relationship with schizophrenia and with ultrahigh risk status for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(2), 227230.
van Os, J and Murray, RM (2013) Can we identify and treat ‘schizophrenia light’ to prevent true psychotic illness. British Medical Journal 346(jan18 1), f304f304.
van Os, J and Reininghaus, U (2016) Psychosis as a transdiagnostic and extended phenotype in the general population. World Psychiatry 15(2), 118124.
Van Overwalle, F (2009) Social cognition and the brain: a meta-analysis. Human Brain Mapping 30(3), 829858.
Velthorst, E, Fett, A-KJ, Reichenberg, A, Perlman, G, van Os, J, Bromet, EJ and Kotov, R (2016 a) The 20-year longitudinal trajectories of social functioning in individuals with psychotic disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 174(11), 10751085.
Velthorst, E, Nieman, DH, Becker, HE, van de Fliert, R, Dingemans, PM, Klaassen, R, de Haan, L, van Amelsvoort, T and Linszen, DH (2009) Baseline differences in clinical symptomatology between ultra high risk subjects with and without a transition to psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 109(1), 6065.
Velthorst, E, Reichenberg, A, Kapara, O, Goldberg, S, Fromer, M, Fruchter, E, Ginat, K, de Haan, L, Davidson, M and Weiser, M (2016 b) Developmental trajectories of impaired community functioning in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 73(1), 4855.
Vlaev, I (2012) How different are real and hypothetical decisions? Overestimation, contrast and assimilation in social interaction. Journal of Economic Psychology 33(5), 963972.
Voges, M and Addington, J (2005) The association between social anxiety and social functioning in first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 76(2), 287292.
Waltz, JA, Frank, MJ, Wiecki, TV and Gold, JM (2011) Altered probabilistic learning and response biases in schizophrenia: behavioral evidence and neurocomputational modeling. Neuropsychology 25(1), 86.
Wechsler, D (1997) WAIS-III Dutch Translation. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Wigman, JT, van Nierop, M, Vollebergh, WA, Lieb, R, Beesdo-Baum, K, Wittchen, H-U and van Os, J (2012) Evidence that psychotic symptoms are prevalent in disorders of anxiety and depression, impacting on illness onset, risk, and severity – implications for diagnosis and ultra-high risk research. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(2), 247257.
Wood, SJ, Yung, AR, McGorry, PD and Pantelis, C (2011) Neuroimaging and treatment evidence for clinical staging in psychotic disorders: from the at-risk mental state to chronic schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 70(7), 619625.
Woods, SW, Addington, J, Cadenhead, KS, Cannon, TD, Cornblatt, BA, Heinssen, R, Perkins, DO, Seidman, LJ, Tsuang, MT and Walker, EF (2009) Validity of the prodromal risk syndrome for first psychosis: findings from the North American prodrome longitudinal study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35(5), 894908.
Woudstra, S, van Tol, M-J, Bochdanovits, Z, van der Wee, NJ, Zitman, FG, van Buchem, MA, Opmeer, EM, Aleman, A, Penninx, BW and Veltman, DJ (2013) Modulatory effects of the piccolo genotype on emotional memory in health and depression. PLoS ONE 8(4), e61494.
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Nelson, B, Francey, SM, Yuen, HP, Simmons, MB, Ross, ML, Kelly, D, Baker, K and Paul Amminger, G (2011) Randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at ultra high risk for psychosis: 6-month analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72(4), 430.
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, Francey, SM, McFarlane, CA, Hallgren, M and McGorry, PD (2003) Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high risk (‘prodromal’) group. Schizophrenia Research 60(1), 2132.
Yung, AR, Yung, AR, Pan Yuen, H, Mcgorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell'olio, M, Francey, SM, Cosgrave, EM and Killackey, E (2005) Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39(11–12), 964971.
Yung, AR, Woods, SW, Ruhrmann, S, Addington, J, Schultze-Lutter, F, Cornblatt, BA, Amminger, GP, Bechdolf, A, Birchwood, M and Borgwardt, S (2012) Whither the attenuated psychosis syndrome? Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(6), 11301134.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Lemmers-Jansen et al. supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (27 KB)
27 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed