Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Major depression during and after the menopausal transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

  • J. T. Bromberger (a1), H. M. Kravitz (a2), Y.-F. Chang (a3), J. M. Cyranowski (a4), C. Brown (a4) and K. A. Matthews (a5)...
Abstract
Background

It is unclear whether risk for major depression during the menopausal transition or immediately thereafter is increased relative to pre-menopause. We aimed to examine whether the odds of experiencing major depression were greater when women were peri- or post-menopausal compared to when they were pre-menopausal, independent of a history of major depression at study entry and annual measures of vasomotor symptoms (VMS), serum levels of, or changes in, estradiol (E2), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone (T) and relevant confounders.

Method

Participants included the 221 African American and Caucasian women, aged 42–52 years, who were pre-menopausal at entry into the Pittsburgh site of a community-based study of menopause, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). We conducted the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) to assess diagnoses of lifetime, annual and current major depression at baseline and at annual follow-ups. Psychosocial and health factors, and blood samples for assay of reproductive hormones, were obtained annually.

Results

Women were two to four times more likely to experience a major depressive episode (MDE) when they were peri-menopausal or early post-menopausal. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses showed that the effect of menopausal status was independent of history of major depression and annually measured upsetting life events, psychotropic medication use, VMS and serum levels of or changes in reproductive hormones. History of major depression was a strong predictor of major depression throughout the study.

Conclusions

The risk of major depression is greater for women during and immediately after the menopausal transition than when they are pre-menopausal.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr J. T. Bromberger, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. (Email: brombergerjt@upmc.edu)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

MF Sowers , S Crawford , B Sternfeld , D Morganstein , EB Gold , GA Greendale , D Evans , R Neer , KA Matthews , S Sherman , A Lo , G Weiss , J Kelsey (2000). SWAN: a multi-center, multi-ethnic, community-based cohort study of women and the menopause. In Menopause: Biology and Pathobiology(ed. R. Lobo , J. Kelsey and R. Marcus ), pp. 175178. Academic Press: San Diego, CA.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 48 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 289 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.