Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 85
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Li, Yan Jakary, Angela Gillung, Erin Eisendrath, Stuart Nelson, Sarah J. Mukherjee, Pratik and Luks, Tracy 2016. Evaluating metabolites in patients with major depressive disorder who received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and healthy controls using short echo MRSI at 7 Tesla. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, Vol. 29, Issue. 3, p. 523.

    Mao, Ning Fang, Junfang Xie, Haizhu Liu, Xinjiang Jiang, Xingyue Wang, Guangbin Cui, Minghu Wang, Bin and Liu, Qiang 2016. Correlation between neurochemical metabolism and memory function in adolescent patients with depression: A multi-voxel1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Vol. 70, Issue. 4, p. 167.

    Peng, Wei-Feng Ding, Jing Li, Xin Fan, Fan Zhang, Qian-Qian and Wang, Xin 2016. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit involved in depression-like behaviours in lithium chloride-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model. Epilepsy Research, Vol. 119, p. 77.

    Arnone, Danilo Mumuni, Abdul Nashirudeen Jauhar, Sameer Condon, Barrie and Cavanagh, Jonathan 2015. Indirect evidence of selective glial involvement in glutamate-based mechanisms of mood regulation in depression: Meta-analysis of absolute prefrontal neuro-metabolic concentrations. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 25, Issue. 8, p. 1109.

    Jia, Yanbin Zhong, Shuming Wang, Ying Liu, Tao Liao, Xiaoxiao and Huang, Li 2015. The correlation between biochemical abnormalities in frontal white matter, hippocampus and serum thyroid hormone levels in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 180, p. 162.

    Regenold, William T. Noorani, Robert J. Piez, Deborah and Patel, Palak 2015. Nonconvulsive Electrotherapy for Treatment Resistant Unipolar and Bipolar Major Depressive Disorder: A Proof-of-concept Trial. Brain Stimulation, Vol. 8, Issue. 5, p. 855.

    Trevithick, Liam McAllister-Williams, R. Hamish Blamire, Andrew Branton, Tim Clark, Ross Downey, Darragh Dunn, Graham Easton, Andrew Elliott, Rebecca Ellwell, Clare Hayden, Katherine Holland, Fiona Karim, Salman Lowe, Jo Loo, Colleen Nair, Rajesh Oakley, Timothy Prakash, Antony Sharma, Parveen K Williams, Stephen R. and Anderson, Ian M. 2015. Study protocol for the randomised controlled trial: Ketamine augmentation of ECT to improve outcomes in depression (Ketamine-ECT study). BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Zhang, Yifan Han, Yu Wang, Yongzhi Zhang, Yinfeng Li, Li Jin, Erhu Deng, Ligang Watts, Brandi Golden, Teresa and Wu, Ning 2015. A MRS study of metabolic alterations in the frontal white matter of major depressive disorder patients with the treatment of SSRIs. BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Chen, Li-Ping Dai, Hai-Yang Dai, Zhuo-Zhi Xu, Chong-Tao and Wu, Ren-Hua 2014. Anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellar hemisphere neurometabolite changes in depression treatment: A1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Vol. 68, Issue. 5, p. 357.

    Erfurth, A. Sachs, G. Perugi, G. and Tondo, L. 2014. Athanasios Koukopoulos (1931–2013). psychopraxis. neuropraxis, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 5.

    Ghasemi, Mehdi Phillips, Cristy Trillo, Ludwig De Miguel, Zurine Das, Devsmita and Salehi, Ahmad 2014. The role of NMDA receptors in the pathophysiology and treatment of mood disorders. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 47, p. 336.

    Jun, Chansoo Choi, Yera Lim, Soo Mee Bae, Sujin Hong, Young Sun Kim, Jieun E. and Lyoo, In Kyoon 2014. Disturbance of the Glutamatergic System in Mood Disorders. Experimental Neurobiology, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 28.

    Lee, T.- S. Quek, S. Y. and Krishnan, K. R. R. 2014. Molecular Imaging for Depressive Disorders. American Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol. 35, Issue. Supplement 6, p. S44.

    Niciu, Mark J. Ionescu, Dawn F. Richards, Erica M. and Zarate, Carlos A. 2014. Glutamate and its receptors in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder. Journal of Neural Transmission, Vol. 121, Issue. 8, p. 907.

    Niciu, Mark J. Henter, Ioline D. Luckenbaugh, David A. Zarate, Carlos A. and Charney, Dennis S. 2014. Glutamate Receptor Antagonists as Fast-Acting Therapeutic Alternatives for the Treatment of Depression: Ketamine and Other Compounds. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vol. 54, Issue. 1, p. 119.

    Stan, Ana D. Schirda, Claudiu V. Bertocci, Michele A. Bebko, Genna M. Kronhaus, Dina M. Aslam, Haris A. LaBarbara, Eduard J. Tanase, Costin Lockovich, Jeanette C. Pollock, Myrna H. Stiffler, Richelle S. and Phillips, Mary L. 2014. Glutamate and GABA contributions to medial prefrontal cortical activity to emotion: Implications for mood disorders. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Vol. 223, Issue. 3, p. 253.

    Zhong, Shuming Wang, Ying Zhao, Guoxiang Xiang, Qi Ling, Xueying Liu, Sirun Huang, Li and Jia, Yanbin 2014. Similarities of biochemical abnormalities between major depressive disorder and bipolar depression: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 168, p. 380.

    Casarotto, Silvia Canali, Paola Rosanova, Mario Pigorini, Andrea Fecchio, Matteo Mariotti, Maurizio Lucca, Adelio Colombo, Cristina Benedetti, Francesco and Massimini, Marcello 2013. Assessing the Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Cortical Excitability by Means of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroencephalography. Brain Topography, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 326.

    Chitty, Kate M. Lagopoulos, Jim Lee, Rico S.C. Hickie, Ian B. and Hermens, Daniel F. 2013. A systematic review and meta-analysis of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mismatch negativity in bipolar disorder. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 23, Issue. 11, p. 1348.

    Kumar, Poornima Harmer, Catherine J. and Dourish, Colin T. 2013. Translational Neuroimaging.


Metabolic changes within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex occurring with electroconvulsive therapy in patients with treatment resistant unipolar depression

  • N. MICHAEL (a1), A. ERFURTH (a1), P. OHRMANN (a1), V. AROLT (a1), W. HEINDEL (a1) and B. PFLEIDERER (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 November 2003

Background. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the pathophysiology of major depression. In particular, metabolic (functional hypometabolism) and structural alterations have been described. In this study metabolic changes within the DLPFC of severely depressed patients before and after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were evaluated by proton STEAM spectroscopy (1H-MRS).

Method. Twelve severely depressed patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode, unipolar with melancholic features (DSM-IV), were enrolled, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was investigated before and after unilateral ECT by 1H-MRS. Three of the four non-responding patients were remeasured a third time after a combined ECT/antidepressant pharmacotherapy. The results were compared with 12 age- and gender-matched controls.

Results. In depressed patients reduced glutamate/glutamine (Glx) levels were measured pre-ECT; Glx concentrations correlated negatively with severity of depression. After successful treatment, Glx increased significantly and levels no longer differed from those of age-matched controls.

Conclusions. Our results indicate that major depressive disorder is accompanied by state-dependent metabolic alterations, especially in glutamate/glutamine metabolism, which can be reversed by successful ECT.

Corresponding author
Dr Nikolaus Michael, University of Münster, Department of Psychiatry, Albert-Schweitzer-Strasse 11, 48129 Münster, Germany.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *