Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 50
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Llovera, Freund Ramos, P.R. García and Ballesteros, A. Ayala 2015. Psicosis. Medicine - Programa de Formación Médica Continuada Acreditado, Vol. 11, Issue. 85, p. 5086.

    Menon, Mahesh Balzanc, Ryan P. Harper-Romeo, Katy Kumar, Devvarta Andersen, Devon Moritz, Steffen and Woodwarda, Todd S. 2015. Psychosocial approaches in the treatment of psychosis. Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, Issue. aop, p. 1.

    Mitchison, Deborah Jakes, Simon Kelly, Siobhan and Rhodes, John 2015. Are Young People Hospitalised with Psychosis Interested in Psychological Therapy?. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 22.

    Ruggeri, Mirella Bonetto, Chiara Lasalvia, Antonio Fioritti, Angelo de Girolamo, Giovanni Santonastaso, Paolo Pileggi, Francesca Neri, Giovanni Ghigi, Daniela Giubilini, Franco Miceli, Maurizio Scarone, Silvio Cocchi, Angelo Torresani, Stefano Faravelli, Carlo Cremonese, Carla Scocco, Paolo Leuci, Emanuela Mazzi, Fausto Pratelli, Michela Bellini, Francesca Tosato, Sarah De Santi, Katia Bissoli, Sarah Poli, Sara Ira, Elisa Zoppei, Silvia Rucci, Paola Bislenghi, Laura Patelli, Giovanni Cristofalo, Doriana and Meneghelli, Anna 2015. Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Multi-Element Psychosocial Intervention for First-Episode Psychosis: Results From the Cluster-Randomized Controlled GET UP PIANO Trial in a Catchment Area of 10 Million Inhabitants. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 41, Issue. 5, p. 1192.

    Velthorst, E. Koeter, M. van der Gaag, M. Nieman, D. H. Fett, A.-K. J. Smit, F. Staring, A. B. P. Meijer, C. and de Haan, L. 2015. Adapted cognitive–behavioural therapy required for targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 45, Issue. 03, p. 453.

    Dopke, Cynthia A. and Batscha, Catherine L. 2014. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Recovery Approach. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Vol. 17, Issue. 1, p. 44.

    García Valencia, Jenny Ahunca Velásquez, Luisa Fernanda Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Gómez Restrepo, Carlos Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo and Palacio Acosta, Carlos 2014. Tratamiento con intervenciones psicoterapéuticas en la fase aguda y de mantenimiento del paciente adulto con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, Vol. 44, p. 90.

    Jauhar, S. McKenna, P. J. Radua, J. Fung, E. Salvador, R. and Laws, K. R. 2014. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for the symptoms of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis with examination of potential bias. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 204, Issue. 1, p. 20.

    Singer, Alisa R. Addington, Donald E. Dobson, Keith S. and Wright, Caitlin 2014. A Pilot Study of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression in Early Psychosis. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol. 21, Issue. 3, p. 323.

    Elis, Ori Caponigro, Janelle M. and Kring, Ann M. 2013. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Current practices and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 33, Issue. 8, p. 914.

    Hill, Kimberley and Startup, Mike 2013. The relationship between internalized stigma, negative symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 206, Issue. 2-3, p. 151.

    Lincoln, Tania and Beck, Aaron T. 2013. The Wiley Handbook of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Rado, Jeffrey T. Hernandez, Edgar I. and Janicak, Philip G. 2013. Novel Approaches for Managing Schizophrenia. Psychopharm Review, Vol. 48, Issue. 11, p. 81.

    Ruggeri, M. Lasalvia, A. and Bonetto, C. 2013. A new generation of pragmatic trials of psychosocial interventions is needed. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, Vol. 22, Issue. 02, p. 111.

    Wittorf, Andreas Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E. Beulen, Silke Bechdolf, Andreas Müller, Bernhard W. Sartory, Gudrun Wagner, Michael Wiedemann, Georg Wölwer, Wolfgang Herrlich, Jutta and Klingberg, Stefan 2013. Associations between therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 210, Issue. 3, p. 702.

    Gaudiano, Brandon A. 2012. CBT for Schizophrenia.

    Gumley, Andrew I. 2012. CBT for Schizophrenia.

    Jones, Christopher and Meaden, Alan 2012. Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology.

    Ruggeri, Mirella Bonetto, Chiara Lasalvia, Antonio De Girolamo, Giovanni Fioritti, Angelo Rucci, Paola Santonastaso, Paolo Neri, Giovanni Pileggi, Francesca Ghigi, Daniela Miceli, Maurizio Scarone, Silvio Cocchi, Angelo Torresani, Stefano Faravelli, Carlo Zimmermann, Christa Meneghelli, Anna Cremonese, Carla Scocco, Paolo Leuci, Emanuela Mazzi, Fausto Gennarelli, Massimo Brambilla, Paolo Bissoli, Sarah Bertani, Maria Elena Tosato, Sarah De Santi, Katia Poli, Sara Cristofalo, Doriana and Tansella, Michele 2012. A multi-element psychosocial intervention for early psychosis (GET UP PIANO TRIAL) conducted in a catchment area of 10 million inhabitants: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Dickerson, Faith B. and Lehman, Anthony F. 2011. Evidence-Based Psychotherapy for Schizophrenia. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 199, Issue. 8, p. 520.


North Wales randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for acute schizophrenia spectrum disorders: outcomes at 6 and 12 months

  • M. STARTUP (a1), M. C. JACKSON (a1) and S. BENDIX (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2004

Background. Recent reviews of randomized controlled trials have concluded that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective, as an addition to standard care, in the treatment of people suffering from schizophrenia. Most of the trials have been conducted with stabilized out-patients. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT for in-patients suffering acute psychotic episodes, when delivered under conditions representative of current clinical practice.

Method. Consecutive admissions meeting criteria were recruited. After screening, 43 were assigned at random to a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group and 47 were assigned to TAU plus CBT. At baseline, 6 months and 12 months, patients were rated on symptoms and social functioning. CBT (maximum 25 sessions) began immediately after baseline assessment.

Results. The CBT group gained greater benefit than the TAU group on symptoms and social functioning. A larger proportion of the CBT group (60%) than the TAU group (40%) showed reliable and clinically important change, and none of them (v. 17%) showed reliable deterioration compared with baseline.

Conclusions. CBT for patients suffering acute psychotic episodes can produce significant benefits when provided under clinically representative conditions.

Corresponding author
Dr Mike Startup, School of Behavioural Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. (Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *