Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 111
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bacon, Kathryn L. Heeren, Timothy Keysor, Julie J. Stuver, Sherri O. Cauley, Jane A. and Fredman, Lisa 2016. Longitudinal and Reciprocal Relationships Between Depression and Disability in Older Women Caregivers and Noncaregivers. The Gerontologist, Vol. 56, Issue. 4, p. 723.


    Barry, Lisa C. and Byers, Amy L. 2016. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging.


    Chen, Yan-Yan Wong, Gloria H.Y. Lum, Terry Y. Lou, Vivian W.Q. Ho, Andy H.Y. Luo, Hao and Tong, Tracy L.W. 2016. Neighborhood support network, perceived proximity to community facilities and depressive symptoms among low socioeconomic status Chinese elders. Aging & Mental Health, Vol. 20, Issue. 4, p. 423.


    Davidson, Sandra K. Dowrick, Christopher F. and Gunn, Jane M. 2016. Impact of functional and structural social relationships on two year depression outcomes: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 193, p. 274.


    Diaz, Silvina Laura Narboux-Nême, Nicolas Boutourlinsky, Katia Doly, Stéphane and Maroteaux, Luc 2016. Mice lacking the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor as an animal model of resistance to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 265.


    Fernández-Guasti, Alonso Olivares-Nazario, Maribel Reyes, Rebeca and Martínez-Mota, Lucía 2016. Sex and age differences in the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the forced swim test. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior,


    Gougeon, Laura 2016. Dietary Patterns and Depression in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: State of the Evidence. Current Nutrition Reports, Vol. 5, Issue. 2, p. 106.


    Hayman, Karen J. Kerse, Ngaire and Consedine, Nathan S. 2016. Resilience in context: the special case of advanced age. Aging & Mental Health, p. 1.


    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P. and Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I. 2016. Lesbian, gay, & bisexual older adults: linking internal minority stressors, chronic health conditions, and depression. Aging & Mental Health, p. 1.


    Jeuring, H. W. Huisman, M. Comijs, H. C. Stek, M. L. and Beekman, A. T. F. 2016. The long-term outcome of subthreshold depression in later life. Psychological Medicine, p. 1.


    Meltzer, Erica P. Kapoor, Ashu Fogel, Joshua Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M. Roth, Robert M. Katz, Mindy J. Lipton, Richard B. and Rabin, Laura A. 2016. Association of psychological, cognitive, and functional variables with self-reported executive functioning in a sample of nondemented community-dwelling older adults. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, p. 1.


    Olivares-Nazario, Maribel Fernández-Guasti, Alonso and Martínez-Mota, Lucía 2016. Age-related changes in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and fluoxetine in the rat forced-swim test. Behavioural Pharmacology, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 22.


    Oseland, Lauren M. Bishop, Alex J. Gallus, Kami L. and Randall, G. Kevin 2016. Early and Late Life Exposure to Trauma and Biopsychosocial Well-Being in Centenarians. Journal of Loss and Trauma, p. 1.


    Shrira, Amit Palgi, Yuval Bodner, Ehud and Shmotkin, Dov 2016. Which category of lifetime adversity accelerates physical impairment among Israeli older adults?. European Journal of Ageing,


    Hoertel, Nicolas McMahon, Kibby Olfson, Mark Wall, Melanie M. Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario Lemogne, Cédric Limosin, Frédéric and Blanco, Carlos 2015. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: Evidence from a national sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 64, p. 107.


    Kuroda, Aki Tanaka, Tomoki Hirano, Hirohiko Ohara, Yuki Kikutani, Takeshi Furuya, Hiroyasu Obuchi, Shuichi P. Kawai, Hisashi Ishii, Shinya Akishita, Masahiro Tsuji, Tetsuo and Iijima, Katsuya 2015. Eating Alone as Social Disengagement is Strongly Associated With Depressive Symptoms in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, Vol. 16, Issue. 7, p. 578.


    Li, Dan Wang, Xia Song, Seongho Zhang, Nanhua and Dey, Dipak K. 2015. Flexible link functions in a joint model of binary and longitudinal data. Stat, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 320.


    Unalan, D. Gocer, S. Basturk, M. Baydur, H. and Ozturk, A. 2015. Coincidence of low social support and high depressive score on quality of life in elderly. European Geriatric Medicine, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 319.


    Virtanen, Marianna Ferrie, Jane E. Batty, G. David Elovainio, Marko Jokela, Markus Vahtera, Jussi Singh-Manoux, Archana and Kivimäki, Mika 2015. Socioeconomic and Psychosocial Adversity in Midlife and Depressive Symptoms Post Retirement: A 21-year Follow-up of the Whitehall II Study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 99.


    Wada, Saho Shimizu, Ken Inoguchi, Hironobu Shimoda, Haruki Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro Akechi, Tatsuo Uchida, Megumi Ogawa, Asao Fujisawa, Daisuke Inoue, Shinichirou Uchitomi, Yosuke and Matsushima, Eisuke 2015. The Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Age in Cancer Patients: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 50, Issue. 6, p. 768.


    ×

Origins of depression in later life

  • DAN G. BLAZER (a1) and CELIA F. HYBELS (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291705004411
  • Published online: 01 September 2005
Abstract

Background. Despite the burden of depression in late life, its origins present a paradox to investigators and clinicians alike.

Method. We review biological (genetics and heredity factors, neurotransmitter dysfunction, endocrine changes, vascular disorders, and medical co-morbidities), psychological (personality attributes, neuroticism, cognitive distortions, and the lack of emotional control and self-efficacy) and social (stressful life events, bereavement, chronic stress or strain, socio-economic disadvantage and impaired social support) origins of late-life depression based upon an extensive though not exhaustive review of the extant literature. In addition, modifying psychological and social factors are discussed.

Results. Older adults appear to be at greater risk for major depression biologically, such as depression resulting from vascular changes, yet the frequency of depression is lower compared to younger adults. Older adults may be protected psychologically due to factors such as socio-emotional selectivity and wisdom, compared to younger adults, and perhaps relatively protected from social risks.

Conclusions. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluating the origins of late-life depression is heuristically valuable, a continual reminder of the many factors that contribute to the onset and persistence of clinically significant symptoms in late life.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Box 3003, Duke University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. (Email: blaze001@mc.duke.edu)
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×