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Personal debt and suicidal ideation

  • H. Meltzer (a1), P. Bebbington (a2), T. Brugha (a1) (a3), R. Jenkins (a4), S. McManus (a5) and M. S. Dennis (a6)...

Personal debt is one of many factors associated with anxiety, depression and suicidality. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between personal debt and suicidal ideation in the context of sociodemographic factors, employment and income, lifestyle behaviours, and recently experienced traumatic events.


Interviews were conducted with a random probability sample comprising 7461 respondents for the third national survey of psychiatric morbidity of adults in England. Fieldwork was carried out throughout 2007. The prevalence of suicidal thoughts in the past week, past year and lifetime was assessed and current sources of debt were recorded.


In 2007, 4.3% of adults in England had thought about taking their own life in the past 12 months, ranging from 1.8% of men aged ⩾55 years to 7.0% of women aged 35–54 years. Those in debt were twice as likely to think about suicide after controlling for sociodemographic, economic, social and lifestyle factors. Difficulty in making hire purchase or mail order repayments and paying off credit card debt, in addition to housing-related debt (rent and mortgage arrears), was strongly associated with suicidal thoughts. Feelings of hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between debt and suicidal ideation.


The number of debts, source of the debt and reasons for debt are key correlates of suicidal ideation. Individuals experiencing difficulties in repaying their debts because they are unemployed or have had a relationship breakdown or have heavy caring responsibilities may require psychiatric evaluation in addition to debt counselling.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Professor H. Meltzer, Professor of Mental Health and Disability, Department of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, University of Leicester, 22–28 Princess Road West, Leicester LE1 6TP, UK. (Email:
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S Platt , K Hawton (2000). Suicidal behaviour and the labour market. In The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide (ed. K. Hawton and K. van Heeringen ), pp. 309384. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester.

R Tourangeau , LJ Rips , K Rasinski (2000). The Psychology of Survey Response. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.

J Williams , L Pollack (2000). The psychology of suicidal behaviour. In The International Handbook of Suicide and Attempted Suicide (ed. K. Hawton and K. van Heeringen ), pp. 7993. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester.

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Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
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