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Prefrontal cortical thinning links to negative symptoms in schizophrenia via the ENIGMA consortium

  • E. Walton (a1) (a2) (a3), D. P. Hibar (a4), T. G. M. van Erp (a5), S. G. Potkin (a5), R. Roiz-Santiañez (a6) (a7), B. Crespo-Facorro (a6) (a7), P. Suarez-Pinilla (a6) (a7), N. E. M. van Haren (a8), S. M. C. de Zwarte (a8), R. S. Kahn (a8), W. Cahn (a8), N. T. Doan (a9), K. N. Jørgensen (a9) (a10), T. P. Gurholt (a9), I. Agartz (a9) (a10) (a11), O. A. Andreassen (a9) (a12), L. T. Westlye (a12), I. Melle (a9) (a12), A. O. Berg (a9), L. Morch-Johnsen (a9) (a10), A. Færden (a13), L. Flyckt (a14), H. Fatouros-Bergman (a14), Karolinska Schizophrenia Project Consortium (KaSP), E. G. Jönsson (a9) (a11), R. Hashimoto (a15) (a16), H. Yamamori (a16), M. Fukunaga (a17), N. Jahanshad (a4), P. De Rossi (a18) (a19) (a20), F. Piras (a19) (a21), N. Banaj (a19), G. Spalletta (a19) (a22), R. E. Gur (a23), R. C. Gur (a23), D. H. Wolf (a23), T. D. Satterthwaite (a23), L. M. Beard (a23), I. E. Sommer (a8), S. Koops (a8), O. Gruber (a24), A. Richter (a24), B. Krämer (a24), S. Kelly (a4) (a25), G. Donohoe (a26), C. McDonald (a26), D. M. Cannon (a26), A. Corvin (a25), M. Gill (a25), A. Di Giorgio (a27), A. Bertolino (a28), S. Lawrie (a29), T. Nickson (a29), H. C. Whalley (a29), E. Neilson (a29), V. D. Calhoun (a30) (a31), P. M. Thompson (a4), J. A. Turner (a32) and S. Ehrlich (a2)...



Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.


This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).


Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (β std = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.


Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: S. Ehrlich, M.D., Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. (Email:


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Members of Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) are listed at the end of the article as collaborators.



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