Skip to main content

Psychopathy, attention and emotion

  • R. J. R. Blair (a1) and D. G. V. Mitchell (a2)

Psychopathy is a developmental disorder marked by emotional hypo-responsiveness and an increased risk for antisocial behavior. Influential attention-based accounts of psychopathy have long been made; however, these accounts have made relatively little reference to general models of attention in healthy individuals. This review has three aims: (1) to summarize current cognitive neuroscience data on differing attentional systems; (2) to examine the functional integrity of these attentional systems in individuals with psychopathy; and (3) to consider the implications of these data for attention and emotion dysfunction accounts of psychopathy.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr R. J. R. Blair, Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 15k North Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. (Email:
Hide All
Adolphs R (2002). Neural systems for recognizing emotion. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12, 169177.
Adolphs R, Gosselin F, Buchanan TW, Tranel D, Schyns P, Damasio AR (2005). A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage. Nature 433, 6872.
Allport DA (1980). Attention and Performance. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London.
Amaral DG, Price JL, Pitkanen A, Carmichael ST (1992). Anatomical organization of the primate amygdaloid complex. In The Amygdala: Neurobiological Aspects of Emotion, Memory, and Mental Dysfunction (ed. Aggleton J. P.), pp. 166. Wiley: New York.
Ambrogi Lorenzini CG, Baldi E, Bucherelli C, Sacchetti B, Tassoni G (1999). Neural topography and chronology of memory consolidation: a review of functional inactivation findings. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 71, 118.
Andershed H, Kerr M, Stattin H, Levander S (2002). Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: initial test of a new assessment tool. In Psychopaths: Current International Perspectives (ed. Blaauw E. and Sheridan L.), pp. 131158. Elsevier: The Hague.
Anderson AK, Christoff K, Panitz D, De Rosa E, Gabrieli JD (2003). Neural correlates of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. Journal of Neuroscience 23, 56275633.
Armony JL, Servan-Schreiber D, Romanski LM, Cohen JD, LeDoux JE (1997). Stimulus generalization of fear responses: effects of auditory cortex lesions in a computational model and in rats. Cerebral Cortex 7, 157165.
Atkinson RC, Juola JF (1973). Factors influencing speed and accuracy of word recognition. In Attention and Performance IV (ed. Kornblum S.), pp. 583612. Academic Press: New York.
Bar-Haim Y, Lamy D, Pergamin L, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IMH (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin 133, 124.
Beauregard M, Levesque J, Bourgouin P (2001). Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion. Journal of Neuroscience 21, RC165.
Bishop S, Duncan J, Brett M, Lawrence AD (2004). Prefrontal cortical function and anxiety: controlling attention to threat-related stimuli. Nature Neuroscience 7, 184188.
Bishop SJ (2007). Neurocognitive mechanisms of anxiety: an integrative account. Trends in Cognitive Science 11, 307316.
Bishop SJ, Jenkins R, Lawrence AD (2007). Neural processing of fearful faces: effects of anxiety are gated by perceptual capacity limitations. Cerebral Cortex 17, 15951603.
Blair KS, Newman C, Mitchell DG, Richell RA, Leonard A, Morton J, Blair RJ (2006). Differentiating among prefrontal substrates in psychopathy: neuropsychological test findings. Neuropsychology 20, 153165.
Blair KS, Smith BW, Mitchell DG, Morton J, Vythilingam M, Pessoa L, Fridberg D, Zametkin A, Sturman D, Nelson EE, Drevets WC, Pine DS, Martin A, Blair RJ (2007). Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion. Neuroimage 35, 430440.
Blair RJ, Colledge E, Mitchell DG (2001). Somatic markers and response reversal: is there orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in boys with psychopathic tendencies? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29, 499511.
Blair RJR (2006). The emergence of psychopathy: implications for the neuropsychological approach to developmental disorders. Cognition 101, 414442.
Blair RJR, Mitchell DGV, Blair KS (2005). The Psychopath: Emotion and the Brain. Blackwell: Oxford.
Blair RJR, Mitchell DGV, Leonard A, Budhani S, Peschardt KS, Newman C (2004). Passive avoidance learning in individuals with psychopathy: modulation by reward but not by punishment. Personality and Individual Differences 37, 11791192.
Botvinick MM, Braver TS, Barch DM, Carter CS, Cohen JD (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review 108, 624652.
Breiter HC, Etcoff NL, Whalen PJ, Kennedy WA, Rauch SL, Buckner RL, Strauss MM, Hyman SE, Rosen BR (1996). Response and habituation of the human amygdala during visual processing of facial expression. Neuron 17, 875887.
Bremner JD (2004). Brain imaging in anxiety disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 4, 275284.
Christianson SA, Forth AE, Hare RD, Strachan C, Lidberg L, Thorell LH (1996). Remembering details of emotional events: a comparison between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Personality and Individual Differences 20, 437443.
Compton RJ, Banich MT, Mohanty A, Milham MP, Herrington J, Miller GA, Scalf PE, Webb A, Heller W (2003). Paying attention to emotion: an fMRI investigation of cognitive and emotional Stroop tasks. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 3, 8196.
Corbetta M, Shulman GL (2002). Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3, 201215.
Dadds MR, Perry Y, Hawes DJ, Merz S, Riddell AC, Haines DJ, Solak E, Abeygunawardane AI (2006). Attention to the eyes and fear-recognition deficits in child psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 280281.
Davis KD, Taylor KS, Hutchison WD, Dostrovsky JO, McAndrews MP, Richter EO, Lozano AM (2005). Human anterior cingulate cortex neurons encode cognitive and emotional demands. Journal of Neuroscience 25, 84028406.
de Gelder B, Vroomen J, Pourtois G, Weiskrantz L (1999). Non-conscious recognition of affect in the absence of striate cortex. Neuroreport 10, 37593763.
Deeley Q, Daly E, Surguladze S, Tunstall N, Mezey G, Beer D, Ambikapathy A, Robertson D, Giampietro V, Brammer MJ, Clarke A, Dowsett J, Fahy T, Phillips ML, Murphy DG (2006). Facial emotion processing in criminal psychopathy. Preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 533539.
Desimone R, Duncan J (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience 18, 193222.
Dolan RJ, Vuilleumier P (2003). Amygdala automaticity in emotional processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 985, 348355.
Duncan J (1998). Converging levels of analysis in the cognitive neuroscience of visual attention. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 353, 13071317.
Duncan J, Humphreys G, Ward R (1997). Competitive brain activity in visual attention. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 7, 255261.
Dvorak-Bertsch JD, Sadeh N, Glass SJ, Thornton D, Newman JP (2007). Stroop tasks associated with differential activation of anterior cingulate do not differentiate psychopathic and non-psychopathic offenders. Personality and Individual Differences 42, 585595.
Elliott R, Dolan RJ, Frith CD (2000). Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex 10, 308317.
Erthal FS, de Oliveira L, Mocaiber I, Pereira MG, Machado-Pinheiro W, Volchan E, Pessoa L (2005). Load-dependent modulation of affective picture processing. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 5, 388395.
Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J (2006). Resolving emotional conflict: a role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron 51, 871882.
Fan J, McCandliss BD, Fossella J, Flombaum JI, Posner MI (2005). The activation of attentional networks. Neuroimage 26, 471479.
Forth AE, Kosson DS, Hare RD (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Multi-Health Systems: Toronto.
Fossella J, Sommer T, Fan J, Wu Y, Swanson JM, Pfaff DW, Posner MI (2002). Assessing the molecular genetics of attention networks. BMC Neuroscience 3, 14.
Frick PJ (1995). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems: a two-factor model of psychopathy in children. Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology 24, 4751.
Frick PJ, Hare RD (2001). The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Multi-Health Systems: Toronto.
Frick PJ, Marsee MA (2006). Psychopathy and developmental pathways to antisocial behavior in youth. In Handbook of Psychopathy (ed. Patrick C. J.), pp. 353374. Guilford: New York.
Gallagher M, Schoenbaum G (1999). Functions of the amygdala and related forebrain areas in attention and cognition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 877, 397411.
Graves R, Landis T, Goodglass H (1981). Laterality and sex differences for visual recognition of emotional and non-emotional words. Neuropsychologia 19, 95102.
Haas BW, Omura K, Constable RT, Canli T (2006). Interference produced by emotional conflict associated with anterior cingulate activation. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 6, 152156.
Hare RD (1991). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised. Multi-Health Systems: Toronto.
Hare RD (2003). Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), 2nd edn. Multi-Health Systems: Toronto.
Hare RD, Clark D, Grann M, Thornton D (2000). Psychopathy and the predictive validity of the PCL-R: an international perspective. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 18, 623645.
Hare RD, Jutai JW (1983). Criminal history of the male psychopath: some preliminary data. In Prospective Studies of Crime and Delinquency (ed. Van Dusen K. T. and Mednick S. A.), pp. 225236. Kluwer-Nijhoff: Boston.
Harris CR, Pashler H (2004). Attention and the processing of emotional words and names: not so special after all. Psychological Science 15, 171178.
Hart S, Kropp PR, Hare RD (1988). Performance of male psychopaths following conditional release from prison. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56, 227232.
Hawes DJ, Dadds MR (2005). The treatment of conduct problems in children with callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73, 737741.
Hiatt KD, Newman JP (2006). Understanding psychopathy: the cognitive side. In Handbook of Psychopathy (ed. Patrick C. J.), pp. 334352. Guilford Press: New York.
Hiatt KD, Schmitt WA, Newman JP (2004). Stroop tasks reveal abnormal selective attention among psychopathic offenders. Neuropsychology 18, 5059.
Howland EW, Kosson DS, Patterson CM, Newman JP (1993). Altering a dominant response: performance of psychopaths and low-socialization college students on a cued reaction time task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102, 379387.
Johnson R Jr. (1993). On the neural generators of the P300 component of the event-related potential. Psychophysiology 30, 9097.
Jonides J, Yantis S (1988). Uniqueness of abrupt visual onset in capturing attention. Perception and Psychophysics 43, 346354.
Kastner S, Ungerleider LG (2000). Mechanisms of visual attention in the human cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 23, 315341.
Kawasaki H, Kaufman O, Damasio H, Damasio AR, Granner M, Bakken H, Hori T, Howard MA 3rd, Adolphs R (2001). Single-neuron responses to emotional visual stimuli recorded in human ventral prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience 4, 1516.
Kiehl KA (2006). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction. Psychiatry Research 142, 107128.
Kiehl KA, Bates AT, Laurens KR, Hare RD, Liddle PF (2006). Brain potentials implicate temporal lobe abnormalities in criminal psychopaths. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 443453.
Kiehl KA, Hare RD, Liddle PF, McDonald JJ (1999). Reduced P300 responses in criminal psychopaths during a visual oddball task. Biological Psychiatry 45, 14981507.
Kiehl KA, Smith AM, Hare RD, Mendrek A, Forster BB, Brink J, Liddle PF (2001). Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry 50, 677684.
Kosson DS, Budhani S, Nakic M, Chen G, Saad ZS, Vythilingam M, Pine DS, Blair RJ (2006). The role of the amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate in encoding expected outcomes during learning. Neuroimage 29, 11611172.
Kosson DS, Newman JP (1986). Psychopathy and the allocation of attentional capacity in a divided-attention situation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95, 257263.
Kuchinke L, Jacobs AM, Grubich C, Vo ML, Conrad M, Herrmann M (2005). Incidental effects of emotional valence in single word processing: an fMRI study. Neuroimage 28, 10221032.
LaPierre D, Braun CMJ, Hodgins S (1995). Ventral frontal deficits in psychopathy: neuropsychological test findings. Neuropsychologia 33, 139151.
Lavie N (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21, 451468.
LeDoux J (1996). The Emotional Brain. Simon & Schuster: New York.
LeDoux JE (2000). The amygdala and emotion: a view through fear. In The Amygdala: A Functional Analysis (ed. Aggleton J. P.), pp. 289310. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Levesque J, Eugene F, Joanette Y, Paquette V, Mensour B, Beaudoin G, Leroux JM, Bourgouin P, Beauregard M (2003). Neural circuitry underlying voluntary suppression of sadness. Biological Psychiatry 53, 502510.
Liberzon I, Martis B (2006). Neuroimaging studies of emotional responses in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1071, 87109.
Lorenz AR, Newman JP (2002). Deficient response modulation and emotion processing in low-anxious Caucasian psychopathic offenders: results from a lexical decision task. Emotion 2, 91104.
Luo Q, Mitchell D, Jones M, Mondillo K, Vythilingam M, Blair RJ (2007). Common regions of dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal-parietal cortices provide attentional control of distracters varying in emotionality and visibility. Neuroimage 38, 631639.
Lykken DT (1995). The Antisocial Personalities. Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.
Lynam DR, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Loeber R, Stouthamer-Loeber M (2007). Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116, 155165.
MacCoon DG, Wallace JF, Newman JP (2004). Self-regulation: the context-appropriate allocation of attentional capacity to dominant and non-dominant cues. In Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications (ed. Baumeister R. F. and Vohs K. D.), pp. 422446. Guilford: New York.
Marois R, Chun MM, Gore JC (2004). A common parieto-frontal network is recruited under both low visibility and high perceptual interference conditions. Journal of Neurophysiology 92, 29852992.
Marsh AA, Finger EC, Mitchell DGV, Reid ME, Sims C, Kosson DS, Towbin KE, Leibenluft E, Pine DS, Blair RJR (2008). Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 712720.
Mitchell DG, Nakic M, Fridberg D, Kamel N, Pine DS, Blair RJ (2007). The impact of processing load on emotion. Neuroimage 34, 12991309.
Mitchell DG, Richell RA, Leonard A, Blair RJ (2006). Emotion at the expense of cognition: psychopathic individuals outperform controls on an operant response task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 559566.
Mitchell DGV, Colledge E, Leonard A, Blair RJR (2002). Risky decisions and response reversal: is there evidence of orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in psychopathic individuals? Neuropsychologia 40, 20132022.
Moran J, Desimone R (1985). Selective attention gates visual processing in the extrastriate cortex. Science 229, 782784.
Morris JS, DeGelder B, Weiskrantz L, Dolan RJ (2001). Differential extrageniculostriate and amygdala responses to presentation of emotional faces in a cortically blind field. Brain 124, 12411252.
Morris JS, Ohman A, Dolan R (1999). A subcortical pathway to the right amygdala mediating ‘unseen’ fear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96, 16801685.
Nakic M, Smith BW, Busis S, Vythilingam M, Blair RJ (2006). The impact of affect and frequency on lexical decision: the role of the amygdala and inferior frontal cortex. Neuroimage 31, 17521761.
Newman JP (1998). Psychopathic behaviour: an information processing perspective. In Psychopathy: Theory, Research and Implications for Society (ed. Cooke D. J., Forth A. E. and Hare R. D.), pp. 81105. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Newman JP, Brinkley CA, Lorenz AR, Hiatt KD, MacCoon DG (2007). Psychopathy as psychopathology: beyond the clinical utility of the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised. In The Psychopath: Theory, Research, and Practice (ed. Herve H. and Yuille J. C.), pp. 173206. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: NJ, USA.
Newman JP, Kosson DS (1986). Passive avoidance learning in psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95, 252256.
Newman JP, Schmitt WA (1998). Passive avoidance in psychopathic offenders: a replication and extension. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107, 527532.
Newman JP, Schmitt WA, Voss WD (1997). The impact of motivationally neutral cues on psychopathic individuals: assessing the generality of the response modulation hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 563575.
Ochsner KN, Bunge SA, Gross JJ, Gabrieli JD (2002). Rethinking feelings: an fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14, 12151229.
Ochsner KN, Gross JJ (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9, 242249.
Ongur D, Price JL (2000). The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans. Cerebral Cortex 10, 206219.
Patrick CJ (1994). Emotion and psychopathy: startling new insights. Psychophysiology 31, 319330.
Pessoa L (2005). To what extent are emotional visual stimuli processed without attention and awareness? Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15, 188196.
Pessoa L, McKenna M, Gutierrez E, Ungerleider LG (2002). Neural processing of emotional faces requires attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, 1145811463.
Pessoa L, Padmala S, Morland T (2005). Fate of unattended fearful faces in the amygdala is determined by both attentional resources and cognitive modulation. Neuroimage 28, 249255.
Pessoa L, Ungerleider LG (2004). Neuroimaging studies of attention and the processing of emotion-laden stimuli. Progress in Brain Research 144, 171182.
Phan KL, Fitzgerald DA, Nathan PJ, Moore GJ, Uhde TW, Tancer ME (2005). Neural substrates for voluntary suppression of negative affect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry 57, 210219.
Plaut DC, Booth JR (2000). Individual and developmental differences in semantic priming: empirical and computational support for a single-mechanism account of lexical processing. Psychological Review 107, 786823.
Posner MI, Rothbart MK (2007). Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annual Review of Psychology 58, 123.
Quirk GJ, Repa C, LeDoux JE (1995). Fear conditioning enhances short-latency auditory responses of lateral amygdala neurons: parallel recordings in the freely behaving rat. Neuron 15, 10291039.
Raine A, Venables PH (1988). Enhanced P3 evoked potentials and longer P3 recovery times in psychopaths. Psychophysiology 25, 3038.
Rauch SL, Shin LM, Phelps EA (2006). Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research – past, present, and future. Biological Psychiatry 60, 376382.
Reynolds JH, Chelazzi L, Desimone R (1999). Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. Journal of Neuroscience 19, 17361753.
Rolls ET (1999). The Brain and Emotion. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Rosenkranz JA, Grace AA (2001). Dopamine attenuates prefrontal cortical suppression of sensory inputs to the basolateral amygdala of rats. Journal of Neuroscience 21, 40904103.
Schoenbaum G, Chiba AA, Gallagher M (1999). Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. Journal of Neuroscience 19, 18761884.
Schoenbaum G, Nugent SL, Saddoris MP, Setlow B (2002). Orbitofrontal lesions in rats impair reversal but not acquisition of go, no-go odor discriminations. Neuroreport 13, 885890.
Shi C, Davis M (2001). Visual pathways involved in fear conditioning measured with fear-potentiated startle: behavioral and anatomic studies. Journal of Neuroscience 21, 98449855.
Shin LM, Whalen PJ, Pitman RK, Bush G, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, Orr SP, McInerney SC, Rauch SL (2001). An fMRI study of anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 50, 932942.
Triesman AM, Gormican S (1988). Feature analysis in early vision: evidence from search asymmetries. Psychological Review 95, 1548.
Verona E, Patrick CJ, Curtin JJ, Bradley MM, Lang PJ (2004). Psychopathy and physiological response to emotionally evocative sounds. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 99108.
Vitale JE, Brinkley CA, Hiatt KD, Newman JP (2007). Abnormal selective attention in psychopathic female offenders. Neuropsychology 21, 301312.
Vuilleumier P (2005). How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention. Trends in Cognitive Science 9, 585594.
Vuilleumier P, Armony JL, Driver J, Dolan RJ (2001). Effects of attention and emotion on face processing in the human brain: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 30, 829841.
Vuilleumier P, Armony JL, Driver J, Dolan RJ (2003). Distinct spatial frequency sensitivities for processing faces and emotional expressions. Nature Neuroscience 6, 624631.
Vythilingam M, Blair KS, McCaffrey D, Scaramozza M, Jones M, Nakic M, Mondillo K, Hadd K, Bonne O, Mitchell DG, Pine DS, Charney DS, Blair RJ (2007). Biased emotional attention in post-traumatic stress disorder: a help as well as a hindrance? Psychological Medicine 37, 14451455.
Whalen PJ, McInerney SC, McNally RJ, Wilhelm S, Jenike MA, Rauch SL (1998). The emotional counting Stroop paradigm: a functional magnetic resonance imaging probe of the anterior cingulate affective division. Biological Psychiatry 44, 12191228.
Williams JM, Mathews A, MacLeod C (1996). The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin 120, 324.
Williams MA, McGlone F, Abbott DF, Mattingley JB (2005). Differential amygdala responses to happy and fearful facial expressions depend on selective attention. Neuroimage 24, 417425.
Williamson S, Harpur TJ, Hare RD (1991). Abnormal processing of affective words by psychopaths. Psychophysiology 28, 260273.
Yamaguchi S, Knight RT (1993). Association cortex contributions to the human P3. In Slow Potential Changes in the Brain (ed. Haschke W., Roitbak A. I. and Speckmann E.-J.), pp. 7184. Birkhauser: Boston.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 28
Total number of PDF views: 139 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 618 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.