Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

The relationship between intellectual impairment and mood disorder in the first year after stroke

  • Allan House (a1), Martin Dennis (a1), Charles Warlow (a1), Keith Hawton (a1) and Andy Molyneux (a1)...

In a community-based study of patients with a first-ever stroke, intellectual impairment (as denned by scores on a common screening test for dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination) was found in 26% at 1 month post-stroke, and in 21% at 6 and 12 month follow-up. Low scores on the screening test were associated with greater age, physical disability before the stroke, larger stroke lesion volumes as measured on CT scan, and non-stroke changes such as atrophy and white matter low attenuation on the CT scan. There was a negative correlation between scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination and symptom levels on two measures of mood disorder. However, there was no evidence of a specific relationship between major depression and low scores on the Mini-Mental State. We examined various aspects of the relationship between mood symptoms and low scores on the Mini-Mental State, but found no evidence to support the suggestion that this relationship represented an example of depressive pseudodementia. We discuss the significance of our findings for clinical psychiatry and neuropsychology.

Corresponding author
1Address for correspondence: Dr Allan House, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Bamford , P. Sandercock , M. Dennis , C. Warlow , L. Jones , K. McPherson , M. Vessey , G. Fowler , A. Molyneux , T. Hughes , J. Burn & D. Wade (1988). A prospective study of cerebrovascular disease in the community: the OCSP 1981–1986. 1. Methodology, demography and incident cases of first stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 51, 13731380.

A. Beck , C. Ward , M. Mendelson , J. Mock & J. Erbaugh (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 561571.

S. Ebrahim , F. Nouri & D. Barer (1985). Cognitive impairment after stroke. Age and Ageing 14, 345348.

M. Folstein , S. Folstein & P. R. McHugh (1975). Mini-mental state – a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research 12, 189198.

A. House , M. Dennis , K. Hawton & C. Warlow (1989). Methods of identifying mood disorders in stroke patients: experience in the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. Age and Ageing 18, 371379.

A. House , M. Dennis , A. Molyneux , C. Warlow & K. Hawton (1990 b). Mood disorders after stroke and their relation to lesion location: a CT scan study. Brain (in the press).

B. Ineichen (1987). Measuring the rising tide. How many dementia cases will there be by 2001? British Journal of Psychiatry 150, 193200.

G. Ladurner , L. D. Iliff & H. Lechner (1982). Clinical factors associated with dementia in ischaemic stroke. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 45, 97101.

R. Mayeux , Y. Stern , J. Rosen & J. Leventhal (1981). Depression, intellectual impairment and Parkinson's Disease. Neurology 31, 645650.

W. R. Miller (1975). Psychological deficit in depression. Psychological Bulletin 82, 238260.

E. Murphy (1982). Social origins of depression in old age. British Journal of Psychiatry 141, 135142.

P. Pullicino , R. Nelson , B. E. Kendall & J. Marshall (1980) Small deep infarcts diagnosed on computed tomography. Neurology 30, 10901096.

R. Robinson , K. Kubos , L. B. Starr , K. Rao & T. R. Price (1984). Mood disorders in stroke patients: importance of location of lesion. Brain 107, 8193.

R. Robinson , K. Bolla-Wison , E. Kaplan , J. Lipsey & T. R. Price (1986). Depression influences intellectual impairment in stroke patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 148, 541547.

R. Robinson , P. Bolduc & T. R. Price (1987). Two-year longitudinal study of post-stroke mood disorders: diagnosis and outcome at one and two years. Stroke 18, 837843.

P. Scheinberg (1988). Dementia due to vascular disease – a multifactorial disorder. Stroke 19, 12911299.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 80 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.