Anderson, KK, Cheng, J, Susser, E, McKenzie, KJ and Kurdyak, P (2015) Incidence of psychotic disorders among first-generation immigrants and refugees in Ontario. Canadian Medical Association Journal 187, E279–E286.
Bentall, RP, De Sousa, P, Varese, F, Wickham, S, Sitko, K, Haarmans, M and Read, J (2014) From adversity to psychosis: pathways and mechanisms from specific adversities to specific symptoms. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49, 1011–1022.
Björkenstam, E, Björkenstam, C, Hjern, A, Reutfors, J and Bodén, R (2013) A five year diagnostic follow-up of 1840 patients after a first episode non-schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 150, 205–210.
Bora, E and Özerdem, A (2017) Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of cognition in bipolar disorder: comparison with healthy controls and schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 47, 2753–2766.
Bora, E, Yücel, M and Pantelis, C (2010) Cognitive impairment in affective psychoses: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 112–125.
Bourque, F, van der Ven, E and Malla, A (2011) A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants. Psychological Medicine 41, 897–910.
Cannon, TD, Bearden, CE, Hollister, JM, Rosso, IM, Sanchez, LE and Hadley, T (2000) Childhood cognitive functioning in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings: a prospective cohort study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 26, 379–393.
Cantor-Graae, E and Pedersen, CB (2013) Full spectrum of psychiatric disorders related to foreign migration. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 427.
Cantor-Graae, E and Selten, J-PP (2005) Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 12–24.
Close, C, Kouvonen, A, Bosqui, T, Patel, K, O'Reilly, D and Donnelly, M (2016) The mental health and wellbeing of first generation migrants: a systematic-narrative review of reviews. Globalization and Health 12, 47.
Coid, JW, Kirkbride, JB, Barker, D, Cowden, F, Stamps, R, Yang, M and Jones, PB (2008) Raised incidence rates of all psychoses among migrant groups: findings from the East London first episode psychosis study. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 1250–1258.
Colvert, E, Rutter, M, Kreppner, J, Beckett, C, Castle, J, Groothues, C, Hawkins, A, Stevens, S and Sonuga-Barke, EJS (2008) Do theory of mind and executive function deficits underlie the adverse outcomes associated with profound early deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36, 1057–1068.
Dalman, C, Broms, J, Cullberg, J and Allebeck, P (2002) Young cases of schizophrenia identified in a national inpatient register. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 37, 527–531.
Dunayevich, E and Keck, PE (2000) Prevalence and description of psychotic features in bipolar mania. Current Psychiatry Reports 2, 286–290.
Fearon, P and Morgan, C (2006) Environmental factors in schizophrenia: the role of migrant studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 405–408.
Fearon, P, Kirkbride, JB, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Morgan, K, Lloyd, T, Hutchinson, G, Tarrant, J, Fung, WLA, Holloway, J, Mallett, R, Harrison, G, Leff, J, Jones, PB and Murray, RM (2006) Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups: results from the MRC AESOP Study. Psychological Medicine 36, 1541–1550.
Garety, P, Kuipers, E, Fowler, D, Freeman, D and Bebbington, P (2001) A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 31, 189–195.
Glahn, DC, Bearden, CE, Barguil, M, Barrett, J, Reichenberg, A, Bowden, CL, Soares, JC and Velligan, DI (2007) The neurocognitive signature of psychotic bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 62, 910–916.
Goodwin, F and Jamison, K (1990) Manic Depressive Illness. New York: Oxford University Press.
Goodwin, GM, Martinez-Aran, A, Glahn, DC and Vieta, E (2008) Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: neurodevelopment or neurodegeneration? An ECNP expert meeting report. European Neuropsychopharmacology 18, 787–793.
Green, MF (2006) Cognitive impairment and functional outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67, 3–8.
Hickling, FW, Mckenzie, K, Mullen, R and Murray, R (1999) A Jamaican psychiatrist evaluates diagnoses at a London psychiatric hospital. British Journal of Psychiatry 175, 283–285.
Hill, S, Reilly, J, Keefe, R, Gold, J, Bishop, J, Gershon, E, Tamminga, C, Pearlson, G, Keshavan, M and Sweeney, J (2013) Neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder: findings from the Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) Study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 1275–1284.
Hogerzeil, SJ, van Hemert, AM, Rosendaal, FR, Susser, E and Hoek, HW (2014) Direct comparison of first-contact versus longitudinal register-based case finding in the same population: early evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia may be three times higher than commonly reported. Psychological Medicine 44, 3481–3490.
Hollander, A-C, Dal, H, Lewis, G, Magnusson, C, Kirkbride, JB and Dalman, C (2016) Refugee migration and risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: cohort study of 1.3 million people in Sweden. BMJ 352, 1–8.
Kapur, S (2003) Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: a framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 13–23.
Kirkbride, JB (2017) Migration and psychosis: our smoking lung? World Psychiatry 16, 119–120.
Kirkbride, JB, Fearon, P, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Morgan, K, Tarrant, J, Lloyd, T, Holloway, J, Hutchinson, G, Leff, JP, Mallett, RM, Harrison, GL, Murray, RM and Jones, PB (2006) Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: findings from 3-center AESOP study. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 250–258.
Kirkbride, JB, Barker, D, Cowden, F, Stamps, R, Yang, M, Jones, PB and Coid, JW (2008) Psychoses, ethnicity and socio-economic status. British Journal of Psychiatry 193, 18–24.
Kirkbride, JB, Errazuriz, A, Croudace, T, Morgan, C, Jackson, D, McCrone, P, Murray, R and Jones, P (2012 a) Systematic Review of the Incidence and Prevalence of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses in England. London: Department of Health Policy Research Programme.
Kirkbride, JB, Errazuriz, A, Croudace, TJ, Morgan, C, Jackson, D, Boydell, J, Murray, RM and Jones, PB (2012 b) Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses. PloS ONE 7, e31660.
Kirkbride, JB, Hameed, Y, Ankireddypalli, G, Ioannidis, K, Crane, CM, Nasir, M, Kabacs, N, Metastasio, A, Jenkins, O, Espandian, A, Spyridi, S, Ralevic, D, Siddabattuni, S, Walden, B, Adeoye, A, Perez, J and Jones, PB (2017 a) The epidemiology of first-episode psychosis in early intervention in psychosis services: Findings From the Social Epidemiology of Psychoses in East Anglia [SEPEA] Study. American Journal of Psychiatry 147, 143–153.
Kirkbride, JB, Hameed, Y, Ioannidis, K, Ankireddypalli, G, Crane, CM, Nasir, M, Kabacs, N, Metastasio, A, Jenkins, O, Espandian, A, Spyridi, S, Ralevic, D, Siddabattuni, S, Walden, B, Adeoye, A, Perez, J and Jones, PB (2017 b) Ethnic minority status, age-at-immigration and psychosis risk in rural environments: evidence from the SEPEA Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 1251–1261.
Koopmans, GT, Uiters, E, Devillé, W and Foets, M (2012) The use of outpatient mental health care services of migrants vis-à-vis Dutch natives: equal access? International Journal of Social Psychiatry 59, 342–350.
Lewis, G, Croft-Jeffreys, C and David, A (1990) Are British psychiatrists racist? British Journal of Psychiatry 157, 410–415.
Lloyd, T, Kennedy, N, Fearon, P, Kirkbride, J, Mallett, R, Leff, J, Holloway, J, Harrison, G, Dazzan, P, Morgan, K, Murray, RM and Jones, PB (2005) Incidence of bipolar affective disorder in three UK cities: results from the ÆSOP study. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 126–131.
MacCabe, JH, Lambe, MP, Cnattingius, S, Sham, PC, David, AS, Reichenberg, A, Murray, RM and Hultman, CM (2010) Excellent school performance at age 16 and risk of adult bipolar disorder: national cohort study. British Journal of Psychiatry 196, 109–115.
Maggioni, E, Altamura, AC and Brambilla, P (2017) Exploring the neuroanatomical bases of psychotic features in bipolar disorder. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 26, 358–363.
Murray, RM, Sham, P, Van Os, J, Zanelli, J, Cannon, M and McDonald, C (2004) A developmental model for similarities and dissimilarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 71, 405–416.
Ødegaard, Ø (1932) Emigration and insanity. Acta Psychiatrica Neurologica (Supp.), 4, 1–206.
OECD (2017) Foreign-born employment (indicator). doi: 10.1787/05428726-en (Accessed on 12 November 2017).
Patel, V and Goodman, A (2007) Researching protective and promotive factors in mental health. International Journal of Epidemiology 36, 703–707.
Pedersen, CB and Cantor-Graae, E (2012) Age at migration and risk of schizophrenia among immigrants in Denmark: a 25-year incidence study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 169, 1117–1118.
Perner, J and Lang, B (1999) Development of theory of mind and executive control. Trends in Cognitive Science 3, 337–344.
Pignon, B, Alexis Geoffroy, P, Thomas, P, Roelandt, JL, Rolland, B, Morgan, C, Vaiva, G and Amad, A (2017) Prevalence and clinical severity of mood disorders among first-, second- and third-generation migrants. Journal of Affective Disorders 210, 174–180.
Reichenberg, A, Weiser, M, Rabinowitz, J, Caspi, A, Schmeidler, J, Mark, M, Kaplan, Z and Davidson, M (2002) A population-based cohort study of premorbid intellectual, language, and behavioral functioning in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and nonpsychotic bipolar disorder. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes 159, 2027–2035.
Reininghaus, U, Kempton, MJ, Valmaggia, L, Craig, TKJ, Garety, P, Onyejiaka, A, Gayer-Anderson, C, So, SH, Hubbard, K, Beards, S, Dazzan, P, Pariante, C, Mondelli, V, Fisher, HL, Mills, JG, Viechtbauer, W, McGuire, P, van Os, J, Murray, RM, Wykes, T, Myin-Germeys, I and Morgan, C (2016) Stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation in early psychosis: an experience sampling study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, sbv190.
Roiser, JP, Stephan, KE, den Ouden, HEM, Barnes, TRE, Friston, KJ and Joyce, EM (2009) Do patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant salience? Psychological medicine 39, 199–209.
Rosenthal, D, Goldberg, I, Jacobsen, B, Wender, P, Kety, S, Schulsinger, F and Eldred, C (1974) Migration, heredity, and schizophrenia. Psychiatry 37, 321–339.
Rothmond, DA, Weickert, CS and Webster, MJ (2012) Developmental changes in human dopamine neurotransmission: cortical receptors and terminators. BMC Neuroscience 13, 18.
Schwartz, RC and Blankenship, DM (2014) Racial disparities in psychotic disorder diagnosis: a review of empirical literature. World Journal of Psychiatry 4, 133–140.
Selemon, LD and Zecevic, N (2015) Schizophrenia: a tale of two critical periods for prefrontal cortical development. Translational Psychiatry 5, 1–11.
Selten, JP, Cantor-Graae, E, Slaets, J and Kahn, RS (2002) Ødegaard's selection hypothesis revisited: schizophrenia in Surinamese immigrants to the Netherlands. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 669–671.
Selten, JP, Laan, W, Veen, ND, Blom, JD, Veling, W and Hoek, HW (2010) Incidence of schizophrenia among Moroccan immigrants to the Netherlands. Schizophrenia Research 124, 240–241.
Swinnen, S and Selten, J-P (2007) Mood disorders and migration. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 6–10.
Trotta, A, Murray, RM and MacCabe, JH (2014) Do premorbid and post-onset cognitive functioning differ between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 45, 381–394.
van der Ven, E, Dalman, C, Wicks, S, Allebeck, P, Magnusson, C, van Os, J and Selten, JP (2015) Testing Ødegaard's selective migration hypothesis: a longitudinal cohort study of risk factors for non-affective psychotic disorders among prospective emigrants. Psychological Medicine 45, 727–34.
Veling, W, Hoek, HW, Selten, J-P and Susser, E (2011) Age at migration and future risk of psychotic disorders among immigrants in the Netherlands: a 7-year incidence study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 1278–1285.
Vreeker, A, Boks, MPM, Abramovic, L, Verkooijen, S, van Bergen, AH, Hillegers, MHJ, Spijker, AT, Hoencamp, E, Regeer, EJ, Riemersma-Van der Lek, RF, Stevens, AWMM, Schulte, PFJ, Vonk, R, Hoekstra, R, van Beveren, NJM, Kupka, RW, Brouwer, RM, Bearden, CE, MacCabe, JH and Ophoff, RA (2016) High educational performance is a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder: a study on cognition in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia patients, relatives and controls. Psychological Medicine 46, 807–818.
Zandi, T, Havenaar, JM, Smits, M, Limburg-Okken, AG, van Es, H, Cahn, W, Algra, A, Kahn, RS and van den Brink, W (2010) First contact incidence of psychotic disorders among native Dutch and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands: influence of diagnostic bias. Schizophrenia Research 119, 27–33.